PSYCHOLOGY: Chapter 12 Motivation and Emotion Lecture Notes
Motivation: any goal-directed behavior
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES AND MOTIVES HANDOUT
Homeostatic drives: controlled primarily by physiological processes over which an individual had no conscious control, such as the drive to quench a thirst.
Non Homeostatic drives: are influenced by social and psychological factors. To some extent, these can be controlled. These drives include sexual behavior, fear, aggression, and some survival instincts.
Biological motives: determined by physiological state of the organism.
Homeostasis: The tendency of all organisms to correct imbalances and deviations from the normal state.
Lateral Hypothalamus (LH): produces hunger signals.
Ventromedial Hypothalamus (VHM: causes you to stop eating (your tummy says, “ I’m full! Stop eating!”)
Effect of Temperature - LH more active during cold temp/winter
VMH is more active in warm temp/summer
Glucostatic Theory: The hypothalamus monitors the amount glucose available in the blood.
- glucose: ready energy
- 2 hormones of the pancreas: produces insulin and glucagon
- insulin: released by the pancreas to convert incoming calories into energy -
whether to be consumed by active cells or converted to stored energy in the
form of fat for later use.
- glucagon: Helps convert the stored energy back into useful energy.
Set-Point: the weight around which your day-to-day weight tends to fluctuate.
3 kinds of information interpreted by the hypothalamus -
1) the amount of glucose that enters your cells
3) your body temperature
Obesity: being severely overweight.
- Schachter: Columbia University researcher who found through numerous studies
that obese people respond to external cues.
* Idea: Obese people eat not because they are hungry, but because
something looks good, or their watches tell them it’s time to eat.
He set up 2 tests. One was with crackers and the other with almonds. He
would record how many of each normal weight people would eat, and how
many obese people would eat.
* Cracker Experiment- Normal weight people would eat because they are
hungry and obese people would eat because the crackers are there to eat.
* Almond Experiment- Overweight people ate only when they didn’t have to
take shells off. They ate because the food was there. Normal weight people
would likely try a few shelled or not.
* 3 point conclusion:
1.) Normal weight people responded to internal cues to eat
2.) Over-weight people would respond to external cues to eat
3.) Hunger is influenced by complex factors
Obesity: (information from the American Obesity Association 2005)
is a disease that affects nearly one-third of the adult American population (approximately 60 million). The number of overweight and obese Americans has continued
to increase since 1960, a trend that is not slowing down. Today, 64.5 percent of adult Americans (about 127 million) are categorized as being overweight or obese. Each year, obesity causes at least 300,000 excess deaths in the U.S., and healthcare costs of American adults with obesity amount to approximately $100 billion.
Obesity increases one's risk of developing conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes (type 2), heart disease, stroke, gallbladder disease and cancer of the breast, prostate and colon
Morbid Obesity: Morbid obesity is defined as having a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 40 or more. This equates to approximately 100 pounds more than ideal weight. This also is referred to as clinically severe obesity or extreme obesity, is a chronic disease that afflicts approximately 9 million adult Americans. For comparison purposes, that is over twice the size of the total population with Alzheimer’s disease. If the entire morbidly obese population lived in one state, it would be the 12th state in population. The health effects associated with morbid obesity are numerous and can be disabling. Often, individuals with morbid obesity suffer with more than one health effect, creating a situation that can shorten life span and negatively impact quality of life.
***Obesity is the second leading cause of unnecessary deaths.
Body Mass Index (BMI) is a mathematical calculation used to determine whether a patient is overweight. BMI is calculated by dividing a person's body weight in kilograms by their height in meters squared (weight [kg] height [m]2) or by using the conversion with pounds (lbs) and inches (in) squared as shown below, This number can be misleading, however, for very muscular people, or for women.
Weight (lbs) ÷ height (in)2 x 704.5 = BMI
Underweight BMI of less than 18.5
Normal weight BMI of between 18.5-24.9
Overweight BMI of between 25-29.9
Obesity BMI of 30 to 39
Morbid Obesity BMI of 40 or more
Obesity Treatment: A statistic frequently used about obesity treatment is that 95 percent of people who lose weight gain it all back. That statistic, based on a small study from 1959, is no longer valid. Much has changed in the way of obesity treatment since then. Thousands of people have succeeded in losing weight and keeping it off -- an encouraging fact for many that are discouraged by outdated information. Weight loss of about 10 percent of body weight is proven to benefit health by reducing many obesity-related risk factors.
There are several different types of effective treatment options to manage weight including: dietary therapy, physical activity, behavior therapy, drug therapy, combined therapy and surgery.
- Dietary therapy involves instruction on how to adjust a diet to reduce the number
of calories eaten.
- Physical Activity: A decrease in the amount of daily activity related to work,
transportation and personal chores is believed to contribute to the high
percentage of overweight and obesity today. Moderate physical activity,
progressing to 30 minutes or more on most or preferably all days of the week is
recommended for weight loss.
- Behavior therapy involves changing diet and physical activity patterns and habits
to new behaviors that promote weight loss. Developing a social support network
(family, friends or colleagues) or joining a support group that can encourage weight
loss in a positive and motivating manner.
- Drug Therapy is recommended as a treatment option for persons with a Body Mass
Index (BMI) > 30 or with two or more obesity-related conditions. Drug therapy
may be used for weight loss and weight maintenance. Patients should be regularly
assessed to determine the effect and continuing safety of a drug.
- Combined therapy: A combination of a diet (with lower calories) and increased
physical activity is reported to produce more weight loss than diet alone or
physical activity alone. A combination of behavior therapy and drug therapy could
prove to be an effective treatment for obesity.
- Bariatric (Obesity) Surgery is used to modify the stomach and or intestines to
reduce the amount of food that can be eaten. Surgery is a well-established
method for long-term weight control for persons with severe obesity. Before
surgery, patients should be informed about the risks and benefits.
*** Patients must be motivated and committed to making a lifestyle change
Clark Hull: Experimental psychologist who traced motivation back to basic physiological needs. He developed the drive reduction theory.
- Drive Reduction Theory: physiological needs drive an organism to act in either
habitual ways until needs are satisfied.
- Major Motivational Idea: all human motives are extensions of biological needs.
According to the drive reduction theory, infants become attached to their mothers because mothers usually relieve such drives as hunger and thirst. Psychologists doubted this was the only reason, or even the main source of an infant’s love for its mother.
Harry Harlow: Psychologist who almost always does research with chimps.
- Infant monkey experiment: he put an infant monkey in a cage with 2 fake mama
monkeys. A wire mom that provided food, and another covered with soft
terry cloth but provided no food. If the drive reduction theory were absolute,
the monkey would only go to the wire momma because it provided food, and
completely ignore the cloth-covered monkey.
*Conclusion: monkey wanted the terrycloth mama for comfort and pleasure.
Therefore, some experiences are motivated by pleasurable sensations.
4 contradictions to Drive Reduction theory:
1) some experiences are inherently pleasurable
2) Sometimes pleasure is derived from stimulation or arousal
3) The pleasure center in the hypothalamus can be stimulated.
4) Humans can learn through observation with no identifiable reward.
James Olds: (1960) discovered pleasure center in hypothalamus
- Olds and Olds experiment: showed how rats would press a bar in a Skinner Box
until they drop from exhaustion to gain brief stimulation from and electrode
implanted their brain's pleasure center.
* Skinner Box: a box designed by B.F. Skinner that rewards an animal for
performing a particular action. Used to study Operant Conditioning among
Conclusion of other theorists: Since some researchers had overlooked the fact that some experiences are inheritably pleasurable, there could be no general theory of motivation of the type that Hull suggested.
At A Glance (pg. 139): Are motives learned or inherited?
Physiological motives: are inherited needs satisfied only by specific goals (food for hunger/water for thirst).
- Pain avoidance: seems inborn, although it can be possible to avoid due to learning.
*2 components of pain- information supplied by inherited nervous system
and emotion supplied by experience. Both are important to the full
understanding of pain.
- In some situations (sex, physical stimulation), physiology clearly plays a role, yet
learning is crucial to our effective response to such “mixed” motives.
- Motives such as achievement and social approval certainly are most subject to the
ultimate effects of experience. For these learned or social motives, the satisfying
goals are much more diverse.
Social motives: those that are learned through our interaction with other people.
Henry Murray: has a theory of personality, which identifies 16 social needs (all social motives)
16 basic social needs: acquisition, conservance, order, construction achievement, recognition defendence, dominance, autonomy, aggression, affiliation, rejection, nurturance, succorance, play, and cognizance.
retention: to keep or hold on to
superiority: to be better or above others
exhibition: to show off, perform, to be the center of attention
inviolacy: to secure from destruction; be untouched
avoidance of inferiority: to never feel that others are better than we are
counteraction: to act in opposition, to frustrate by contrary action
deference: submission to yield to the judgement of others
contrariness: being the opposite one of two; stubbornly opposed or willful
abasement: to lower or put down
avoidance of blame: to not be responsible for actions; not be the cause of
exposition: to explain; present a point of view
Social psychology: the study of individuals in a social context. Psychologists in this subdiscipline conduct research on worker performance, group dynamics, and group design processes.
David McClelland: a leading researcher, who wanted to find some quantitative way of measuring social motives. He used the TAT.
- Thematic Apperception Test: a projective test on personality.
* How it works: This test consists of a series of 20 pictures. Subjects are
told to make up a story that explains each picture.
* Projective tests: open-ended examinations that invite people to tell stories
about pictures, diagrams, or objects. The idea is that because the test
material has no established meaning, the story a person tells must say
something about his or her needs, wishes, fears, and other aspects of
personality. In other words, the subject will project his or her feelings on
to the test item.
Most well known projective test: Rorschach inkblot test developed by
Swiss Psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach in 1921. (See page 307 for
^ 4 Points:
1.) There are no right or wrong answers.
2.) The test questions are ambiguous.
3.) The answers must be created from the test-taker’s own
beliefs, motives, and attitudes.
4.) Each story is “coded” by looking for certain kinds of themes
and scoring these themes according to their relevance to
various types of needs.
^ 2 critcisms:
1.) Scoring is too open-ended.
2.) Scoring relies too much on the examiner's subjective
- Experiment at Wesleyan University (1965): They tracked the success of students who had scored high and low on the TAT in 1947. He wanted to see which students had chosen entrepreneurial work. He found that 11 years after graduation, 83% of the entrepreneurs (business managers, insurance salesmen, real estate investors, and consultants) had scored high on the TAT in achievement. Only 21% of non-entrepreneurs had scored that high.
* Entrepreneurial work: work in which they had to initiate projects on their
Although McClelland studied high achievement, he did not think that we should all train ourselves as high achievers.
- 4 Problems with super high achievers according to McClelland:
1.) They are not always the most interesting
2.) They are not usually artistically sensitive
3.) Are less likely to value intimacy in a relationship
4.) They prefer to be associated with experts who can help them achieve
Matina Horner: psychologist who studied achievement, but not on men. She asked men and women to finish a story about a woman going to medical school in the early 70’s. They were asked to finish the story that began with the sentence, “After first term finals, John found himself at the top of his medical school class.” Most people predicted success for “John”. Although when she substituted the name “Anne” for John, more than 65% of women predicted doom for ”Anne” in the story.
Motive to avoid success: Females have been raised with the idea that being successful in a traditional male role is somehow odd, unfeminine and somehow makes her a failure as a woman.
* 6 Points
1.) Very bright women, who had a real chance of achieving in their chosen
fields, exhibited a stronger fear of success.
2.) Women who were of average or slightly above average intelligence had a
lower fear of success.
3.) Expecting success made women more likely to avoid it, despite the obvious
advantages of a rewarding career.
4.) It very difficult to define success
5.) It is often hard to tell whether a person who doesn’t try something is
more afraid of success or failure.
6.) The fear of success has been found in both women AND men in subsequent
^ Cherry and Deaux, 1978: Did the study that showed both men and women show a fear of success in an opposite sex dominant jobs.
^ Paludi, 1984: Their study found the fear of success is found in both men (45%) and women (49%).
J.W. Atkinson: developed an expectancy-value theory to explain goal directed behavior.
- Expectancy-Value theory: The theory combines the estimated likelihood of
success with what the goal is worth to you.
* Expectancy: your estimated likelihood of success
* Value: what the goal is worth to you
Competency theory: when we choose moderately difficult tasks where both successes and failures may be instructive to us. This is used to explain goal-directed behavior.
- Schneider: (1984) said the above statement.
McClelland (1958): In a ring toss game, kids could choose to stand 1 to 15 feet
away from the stake onto which they tried to toss rings as a group watched. Those kids with a high need for achievement were up to 10 times more likely to choose an
intermediate distance from the stakes than to choose a ridiculously easy or
impossibly difficult distances.
Intrinsic motivation: driven by the knowledge you gain and the fun you have is reward enough for your efforts.
Extrinsic motivation: driven by a reward that is external to you.
*** Some forms of extrinsic motivation will increase your intrinsic motivation. External rewards such as money or access to power are controlling rewards. By contrast praise -”You did an excellent job on the essay. Keep up the good work”- is an informative reward that will often increase our intrinsic motivation (Deci & Ryan, 1987).
Abraham Maslow: humanistic psychologist who believed that ALL human beings need to feel competent, to win approval and recognition, and to obtain a sense of achievement.
Hierarchy of Needs: the order of human needs
*Fundamental needs: the biological drives that must be satisfied in order to
maintain life. (hunger, thirst)
^ Physiological needs to satisfy hunger, thirst, and sex drive.
^ Safety needs to feel secure, safe, and out of danger.
*Psychological needs: these include the need to belong, to give and receive
love, and to acquire esteem through competence and achievement. If these
urges are frustrated, it will be difficult for the person to strive for
fulfillment of the next level of the hierarchy. These can only be fulfilled by
^Belongingness and love needs: to affiliate with others, to be
accepted and belong.
*Effect of lack of love: It makes people anxious or tense, and
gives them a driven quality to their behavior.
*** They will engage in random, desperate, and sometimes
maladaptive activities until they find something that
will relieve their tensions.
^ Esteem needs to achieve, be competent, gain approval and
*Self-Actualization: these include the pursuit of knowledge and beauty, or
whatever else is required for the realization of one’s unique potential.
Before these needs can be satisfied, people must first meet their
fundamental and psychological needs.
^# who attain this level: Maslow believed that, although relatively
few people reach this level, we all have these needs. To be creative
in the way we conduct our lives and use our talents, we must first
satisfy our fundamental and psychological needs. The satisfaction
of these needs motivates us to seek self-actualization needs.
- Major Contribution: The idea that some needs take precedence over others
and the suggestion that achieving one level of satisfaction releases new
needs and motivations.
- Importance given to love needs: some of the highest priority
- 3 Criticisms:
1.) There is no guarantee (proof) that the needs must be satisfied in
2.) Any one need may be dominant at a particular time, even as the
organism is seeking to respond to others among his or her dominant
3.) A need may be dominant in any of us at a particular moment, without
necessarily meaning the other needs are not present and influencing
behavior at some level
Difference Between motivation and emotion: is very difficult to define.
Drive: emphasizes the needs, desires, and mental calculations that lead to goal directed behavior. (motivation)
Affect: stress the feelings associated with these decisions and activities (emotion)
How we explain emotions: It depends on whether we are describing the source of our behavior or the feelings associated with our behavior. When we want to emphasize the needs, desires, and metal calculations that lead to goal-directed behavior, we use the word "drive" or "motivation".
When we want to stress the feelings associated with these decisions and activities, we use the word "emotion" or "affect".
We frequently explain our motives in terms of emotions.
4 points on emotions:
1.) Emotions push and pull us in different directions.
2.) Sometimes emotions function like biological drives: our feelings energize us and
make us pursue a goal. (Which goal we pursue may be determined by our social
3.) We do things because we think they will make us feel good: anticipated emotions
are the incentive for our actions.
4.) The consequences of striving for one goal or another also invoke emotions.
Charles Darwin: argued that all people express certain basic feelings in the same way.
- THE EXPRESSION OF EMOTIONS IN MAN AND ANIMALS: His book
published in 1872.
- Idea on emotions: all emotions develop because they have survival value.
- Ekman, Friesen & Ellsworth, 1972: showed a New Guinea tribe pictures of facial
expressions. Even though these people had relatively little contact with outsiders
and virtually no exposure to mass media, they too were able to identify the
emotions being expressed.
Innate: part of biological inheritance. Some studies imply that certain basic facial expressions are innate.
- Goodenough, 1932: Study of blind, deaf kids that showed they display the same
emotions/expressions as other people do, even though they could not have learned
how to communicate feelings by observing other people.
Carroll Izard: a psychologist who developed coding system for assessing emotional states of people. By noticing changes in different parts of the face (eyes, eyebrows, and mouth) they have been able to identify 10 different emotional states.
- Study: He used his coding system to study emotional expressions in infants. This
technique was useful because infants and young children cannot verbally
report what they are feeling. It also allowed psychologists to study how
effectively parents are able to read their babies faces and figure out
what they are feeling. Not only are parents watching their babies, but the
reverse is also true. Babies spend a lot of time watching their parents.
Infants have many opportunities to learn about and express emotions by
using their parents as models.
Effect of learning on emotions: Learning is an important factor in emotional expression.
James Averill: believes many of everyday emotional reactions are result of social expectations and consequences.
- 3 ideas:
1.) Many of everyday emotional reactions are result of social expectations and
2.) Emotions are responses of the whole person and we can’t separate an
individual's physical or biological experiences of emotions from that
person's thoughts oractions associated with those emotions.
3.) We learn to express emotion in the company of other people and we learn
that emotions can serve different social functions.
Cause of maladaptive behaviors & personality disorders: Children are taught which emotions are considered appropriate in different situations. People may learn that a behavior is good in one setting and not in another. If inappropriate conditioning takes place (like living in an environment where stealing is good), the person will learn maladaptive behaviors and coping mechanisms.
The individual will continue to use that emotion or behavior to get his/her own way in other situations throughout life. Personality disorders are developed in this way.
Kleinberg, (1938): Did the study on how cultures described fainting in novels. Showed that women of the Victorian era closed eyes, gasped, and fainted when frightened or shocked, and Chinese men fainted when they were enraged. Cultural learning plays a big role in emotional expression.
Conclusion on emotions and expression: Everyone is born with the capacity for emotions and some basic form of expression, but when, where, and how we express our emotions depends on the learning.
Emotions are analyzed by facial expressions but they don’t tell where they come from, some think emotion derives from physical change others think they result from mental processes
2 origins of emotions: from physical changes and mental processing.
William James: Behaviorist who wrote Principles of Psychology (1890). He attempted to summarize the best available literature on human behavior, motivations, and feelings. When it came to drawing up a catalog of human emotions, he gave up. There are just too many subtle variations.
- Idea on emotions: (Since nearly every description of emotion he read emphasized bodily changes) We associate feelings with sudden increases or decreases in energy, muscle tension and relaxation, and sensations in pit of our stomachs. Emotions are the perception of certain internal bodily changes.
James-Lange theory: suggests that emotions result from the perception of bodily
- What other psychologists think: others had assumed emotions trigger bodily
changes. The opposite of James.
Izzard’s theory on emotion: (is close to the James-Lange theory) Our conscious experience of emotion results from the sensory feedback we receive from muscles in our faces.
Walter Cannon: published a summary of the evidence against the James-Lange theory.
- Idea: He argued that the thalamus is the seat of emotion.
Philip Bard: another psychologist who refined Cannon's idea.
Cannon-Bard Theory: Certain experiences activate the thalamus, and the thalamus sends messages to the cortex and to the body organs. This theory attributes emotion to the simultaneous activity of the brain and “gut” reaction.
- Hypothalamus: Later studies proved that it is the hypothalamus, not the
thalamus, is involved in emotion.
- Definition of emotion: refers to simultaneous burst of activity in the brain and
- Importance of physical arousal: emphasized in emotion. We have physical
arousal and then emote, or do we emote and
then have physical arousal?
- “fight or flight response: reaction of sympathetic nervous system that prepares
us for an emergency.
Cognitive theorists: believe bodily changes and thinking work together to produce emotions.
Schachter-Singer, 1962: Stooge experiment
- What was being studied?: effects of thinking and others reactions on an
- What did they tell the subjects was being studied?: the effects of vitamin C
on eyesight. They would be receiving an injection of Vitamin C, then they
would be asked to take an eye test. Really, they were being injected with
-Informed group: was told the injection would make hearts race, body’s tremble
(which was true)
- Misinformed group: told the injection would make them feel numb. (untrue)
- Uniformed group: weren’t told anything about how their bodies would react to the
- Control group: got neutral injection that did not produce any symptoms. They
weren’t told anything about how their bodies would react to the
- Activity in the waiting room: Here the participants encountered the "stooge"
(someone who was part of the experiment.) Sometimes he acted wild, and
sometimes he acted angry (outraged at the offensive questionnaire).
- How each group reacted: The informed and neutral groups watched with
amusement. The others acted as the "stooge" did.
- 4 point conclusion:
1.) The internal components of emotion (such as those adrenaline produces)
affect a person differently, depending on his or her interpretation or
perception of the social situation.
2.) When people cannot explain their physical reactions, they take cues from
3.) Internal changes are important - otherwise people from the neutral group
would have acted in the same way as those from the misinformed group.
4.) Perception and physical arousal interact to create emotions.
Opponent Process Theory: The idea that any intense emotion will, with repeated exposure, bring about an internal counter-force of similar magnitude.
Using psychology (pg. 149)
Polygraph: another name for a lie detector test
- What they measure: They measure changes in a person's nervous system
activity, NOT lying. They measure: sweating, heart rate,
respiration rate, and blood pressure
Leonard Keeler: A California police officer in the 1920's who invented the polygraph.
What polygraphs look for: looks for the activation of the sympathetic nervous system.
- 4 signs of activation of the sympathetic nervous system:
irregular breathing pattern
high heart rate
increased blood pressure
increased sweating (perspiration)
background of examiners: Most have knowledge not of psychology, but law enforcement. They way the cross-question a person is at least as important as the machine itself.
Does it really tell if someone is lying?: not really; just tells of the activation of sympathetic nervous system.
Effect a polygraph has on confessions: Some experts say that if a person believes in the lie detector, it can be used to make him/her tell the truth. Indeed, many people confess during an interview that usually takes place before the machine is even plugged in.
The Joke about the Xerox machine as a polygraph: (from Ms. Weid’s arsenal of humor).
3 types of questions:
emotional, but not relevant to the investigation
related specifically to the investigation
Kleinmuntz & Szucko, (1984): they examined lie detection tests given to 50 subjects who confessed to a crime and 50 who were proven innocent when other's confessed. The study showed that 37% of six judges' ratings of 50 innocent people were wrong.
False positives: when the polygraph says a person is guilty but, in fact he/she is innocent.
False negatives: when a polygraph declares that a guilty person is innocent.
1988 Congressional Act: prohibited the use of lie detectors in most employee hiring practices.
Guilty-knowledge test: a form of lie detection in which, the subject is asked a variety of questions regarding details of a crime as well as a selection of questions about facts not related to the crime. The innocent person would not know the "right" answer from the "wrong" one, whereas the person(s) who committed the crime would know.
- % of guilt it misses: 20%
- % of innocent it falsely accused: very few - less than 2%