PSYCHOLOGY: Chapters 11 & 13-2 - Thinking, Intelligence and Language

* Bold print denotes a term not in the text.



11-1: Thinking and Problem Solving


Language and thought:  We organize thought by language. 

                           Therefore, increasing your vocabulary will

                           allow you to process more information.


Sidney Sugarman quote: “Teach the young people how to think,

                             not what to think.”


     - meaning: Give people the skills to make decisions for



Thinking:  changing and reorganizing the information stored in memory to create new information.


4 units of thought: image, symbol, concept, and rule.


Image: a visual, mental representation of a specific event or object.


        - 2 points on images:

                1.) The representation is not usually an exact copy; rather, it

                    contains only the highlights of the original.

                2.) Imaging is an effective way to think about concepts.


        - Shepard and Metzler, (1971): researchers

                * experiment:  presented participants with 1,600 pairs of  

                              geometric images (see Figure 11.1). The         

                              researchers then asked the participants to

                              determine if the objects in each pair were

                              identical or different.


                * conclusion:  The researchers discovered that the

                                     participants completed the task by rotating an

                                     image of one of the objects in their minds in

                                     an effort to see both patterns from the same



Symbol: an abstract unit of thought that represents an object or



        - most common example: words


        - how symbols differ from images:  An image represents a

                            specific sight or sound, but a symbol may have a

                            number of meanings.


                * 3 points:

                        1.) That symbols differ from the things they represent

                            enables us to think about things that are not


                        2.) Allow us to consider the past and future.

                        3.) Allow us to imagine things and situations that never

                            will be or never were.


        - 4 examples familiar symbols of ideas that have no concrete

                 existence:  Numbers, letters, punctuation marks, and icons



Concept: a label for a class of objects or events that have at least one attribute in common.


        - 4 examples: Animals, music, liquid, and beautiful people


        - 3 points:

                1.) Concepts enable us to chunk large amounts of


                2.) We do not have to treat every new piece of information

                     as unique, since we already know something about the

                     class of objects or experiences to which the new item


                3.) Concepts are stored in memory using complex



Prototype: a representative example of a concept


        - Theory of Prototypes: we understand a word by knowing

          features of it prototype and recognizing that it may only have

          a subset of features of its prototype.


                Example:  A dog may not bark, may not have a tail or fur,

                               but it's still a dog.


Rule: a statement of relation between concepts.


        - 2 examples: A person cannot be in two places at the same time.

                             Mass remains constant despite changes in


4 points on the units of thought:

        1.) Images, symbols, concepts, prototypes, and rules are the

             building blocks of mental activity.

        2.) They provide an economical and efficient way for people to

             represent reality.

        3.) They make it easier to manipulate and reorganize reality.

        4.) We use them to devise new ways of acting.


3 kinds of thinking:

        1.) directed thinking

        2.) nondirected thinking

        3.) metacognition


        - directed thinking: is a systematic and logical attempt to reach

                                       a specific goal.


                * convergent thinking: a way of thinking that depends

                                                   heavily on symbols, concepts, and



                * 4 points:

                        1.) This kind of thinking, also called convergent thinking.

                        2.) It depends on symbols, concepts, and rules.

                       3.) Directed thinking is deliberate and purposeful.

                        4.) It is through directed thinking that we solve

                            problems; formulate and follow rules; and set, work

                            toward, and achieve goals.





        - nondirected thinking: a way of thinking that consists of a free

                                            flow of thoughts with no particular plan

                                            and depends more on images.


                * divergent thinking: Another name for nondirected



                * 5 points:

                        1.) Depends more on images

                        2.) is usually rich with imagery and feelings such as

                            daydreams, fantasies, and reveries.

                        3.) People often engage in nondirected thought when

                            they are relaxing or escaping from boredom or


                        4.) This kind of thinking may provide unexpected

                            insights into one’s goals and beliefs.

                        5.) Scientists and artists say that some of their best

                            ideas emerge from drifting thoughts that occur

                            when they have set aside a problem for the moment.


        - metacognition: the awareness of one’s own cognitive processes. 

                                  Thinking about thinking - Evaluating a strategy.


Bloom's Taxonomy Handout

Benjamin Bloom created this taxonomy for categorizing level of abstraction of questions that commonly occur in educational settings. The taxonomy provides a useful structure in which to categorize test questions, since professors will characteristically ask questions within particular levels, and if you can determine the levels of questions that will appear on your exams, you will be able to study using appropriate strategies.



Skills Demonstrated


  • observation and recall of information
  • knowledge of dates, events, places
  • knowledge of major ideas
  • mastery of subject matter
  • Question Cues:
    list, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name, who, when, where, etc.


  • understanding information
  • grasp meaning
  • translate knowledge into new context
  • interpret facts, compare, contrast
  • order, group, infer causes
  • predict consequences
  • Question Cues:
    summarize, describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate, distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss, extend


  • use information
  • use methods, concepts, theories in new situations
  • solve problems using required skills or knowledge
  • Questions Cues:
    apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, relate, change, classify, experiment, discover


  • seeing patterns
  • organization of parts
  • recognition of hidden meanings
  • identification of components
  • Question Cues:
    analyze, separate, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, divide, compare, select, explain, infer


  • use old ideas to create new ones
  • generalize from given facts
  • relate knowledge from several areas
  • predict, draw conclusions
  • Question Cues:
    combine, integrate, modify, rearrange, substitute, plan, create, design, invent, what if?, compose, formulate, prepare, generalize, rewrite


  • compare and discriminate between ideas
  • assess value of theories, presentations
  • make choices based on reasoned argument
  • verify value of evidence
  • recognize subjectivity
  • Question Cues
    assess, decide, rank, grade, test, measure, recommend, convince, select, judge, explain, discriminate, support, conclude, compare, summarize


** You can apply Bloom's Taxonomy to more than just test-taking.  It relates directly to one's life.


Problem-solving: to bridge the gap mentally between a present

                          situation and a desired goal.  Depends on the use of

                          strategies, or specific methods for approaching



        - examples: hunger and getting food

                            a column of figures and a total

                            a lack of money and bills to pay

                            cancer and a cure.


        - strategies: specific methods for approaching problems.


                * 4 examples:

                        1.) Break down a complex problem into a number of

                           smaller, more easily solved subgoals.  

                                * Subgoals: intermediate steps toward a solution.


                        2.) Work backward from the goal you have set.

                        3.) Examine various ways of reaching a desired goal.

                        4.) Analyze the problem to see if it resembles a

                            situation we have experienced in the past. A

                            strategy that worked in the past is likely to work



                * if a problem is very unusual: the more difficult it is to

                                              devise a strategy for dealing with it.


Algorithms: a step-by-step procedure for solving a problem.


        - 2 examples: Mathematical and scientific formulas


        - problem with: They are a time-consuming.


Heuristics: a rule-of-thumb problem-solving strategy.


        - 3 types:

                * Availability heuristics: the tendency to rely on information

                                                      that is more prominent or easily

                                                      recalled and overlook information

                                                      that is available but less



                        + example:  In the news, we see people winning the

                                         lottery all the time and overestimate our

                                         chances at winning it also.


                * Representativeness heuristics:  the tendency to assume

                                              that if an item is similar to members of

                                              a particular category, it is probably a

                                              member of that category, too.


                        + example:  I have flipped a coin 10 times and it has

                                         landed on tails every time. The odds are it

                                         will land on heads this time.

                                         (The odds are 50–50, as they are for each

                                           coin toss.)


                * Anchoring heuristics:  the tendency to make decisions

                                                     based on certain ideas, or

                                                     standards, that are important to us.


                        + example:  In my family, everyone gets up by 8:00 A.M.

                                         every day, including weekends.  I believe

                                         that only lazy people sleep past 8:00 A.M.

                                         (I formed a judgment about other people

                                           based on a standard in my family.)


     - 2 problems:

           1.) Although heuristics are faster than algorithms, they

               are not always as reliable.

          2.) Although heuristics allow us to make quick decisions,

               they can result in bad decisions because we make

               the decisions using shortcuts and sometimes ignore

               pertinent information.



Sternberg- Wagner Variation of Thinking Styles Handout


8 obstacles to problem-solving:

     1.) Learned Laziness: when a person does not learn to work

                               because rewards have come without

                               effort in the past.


     2.) Learned Helplessness: a condition in which repeated

                                   attempts to control a situation fail,

                                   resulting in the belief that the

                                   situation is uncontrollable.


        3.) Apathy: Failure to care, or try.


        4.) Mental set: When a particular strategy becomes a habit.


        5.) Rigidity: when a set interferes with problem solving


                * 3 types:

                        6.) Functional fixedness:

                        7.) False assumptions

                        8.) Most people look for direct methods of solving

                            problems and do not see solutions that require

                            several intermediate steps


                * 2 ways to overcome:

                        1.) Rigidity can be overcome if the person realizes that

                           his or her strategy is not working.

                        2.) The person looks for other ways to approach the

                            problem.  (Analyzing situations from many



                * Familiar situations: The more familiar the situation, the

                                                  more difficult this will be.


                * When rigidity is less likely: Rigidity is less likely to occur

                                                             with unusual problems.


                * Major reason for rigidity: Many individuals are trained,

                                                           through formal education, to

                                                           think of only one way to do



Creativity:  the capacity to use information and/or abilities in a new

                   and original way.


        - 2 points:

                        1.) All problem-solving requires some creativity.

                2.) Psychologists do not know exactly why some people are

                    able to think more creatively than others.


        - 3 main characteristics: Flexibility, recombination, and insight.


                * flexibility: the ability to overcome rigidity.


                ^ tests for In one test, psychologists ask people how

                                              many uses they can imagine for a single

                                              object, such as a brick or a paper clip.

                                             The more uses a person can devise, the

                                              more flexible he or she is said to be.


                ^ major point: inflexible, rigid thinking leads to

                                               unoriginal solutions or no solutions at all.


                        * recombination: rearranging the elements of a problem to

                                          arrive at an original solution


                        ^ 2 points:

                                1.) Recombination seems to be a vital part of


                                2.) The creative person is able to take the

                                    information that he or she and others have

                                    compiled and put it together in a totally new



                        ^ Newton’s quote: “If I have seen further, it is by

                                                     standing on the shoulders of



        + meaning: He didn't create anything new - he

                         just built upon what was already.


                * insight:  the apparent sudden realization of the solution to

                               a problem.


                        ^ when it occurs: when problems have proved resistant

                                                  to all problem-solving efforts and



                        ^ where it occurs:  When the person is absorbed in

                                                      some other activity, the answer

                                                      seems to appear out of nowhere.


                        ^ as the “aha experience”: another name for insight.


        - cycle of frustration:

        problem      frustration     temporary diversion = insight.


* Wolfgang Kohler, (1976):  He had monkeys in a cage with three

             boxes in the cage, and a bunch of bananas hanging just   

             outside their reach.  Monkeys tried various ways to

             reach the bananas on their own, but finally stacked the

             boxes on top of each other and then could reach out to

             grab the bananas.  Perfect example of insight used in

             problem solving.





¨      Have the ability to make unusual associations or connections between seemingly unrelated or remote ideas.

¨      Have the ability to rearrange elements of thought to create new ideas or products.

¨      Can find a large number of solutions to problems.

¨      Display intellectual playfulness, fantasize, imagination and daydream.

¨      Are often concerned with adapting, improving, or modifying existing ides, thoughts, or products, or the ideas or products of others.

¨      Have a keen or unusual sense of humor and many times see humor others do not.

¨      Ask many questions at an early age - this trend may continue past early childhood and into adulthood.

¨      Frequently challenge teachers, textbook authors, and those in authority or “experts”.

¨      Sometimes come up with unexpected, futuristic, bizarre, even “silly” answers or solutions.

¨      When completing special or unusual projects or assignments, often show a rare capacity for originality, intense concentration, and persistence.  (may be perceived as working hard to achieve personal goals.

¨      May become obsessed with completing varied projects, or exhibit unusual persistence in completing tasks.

¨      Are willing to take risks; are adventurous.

¨      Display a great deal of curiosity about many things.

¨      May devise collections based on unusual things or interests.

¨      Exhibit heightened emotional sensitivity - may not only be sensitive to beauty but visibly moved by aesthetic experiences.

¨      Are frequently perceived as nonconforming.

¨      Do not fear being labeled as “different”.

¨      Can accept disordered nature of chaotic environments.

¨      Frequently not interested in details.

¨      May criticize others constructively, but have difficulty in accepting other’s criticism.

¨      Independent in thought and action.

¨      Prefer the complex to the ordinary.

¨      Have a genuine concern for the welfare of others, although it may be hidden at times.

Devotes less time than the average amount of the time to social behavior


Blockages to Creativity Graphic Organizer

          - Tradition

          - Control

          - Negativism

          - Prejudice

          - Fear of failure

          - Impatience

          - Uniformity

          - Fear of ridicule

          - Conceit

          - Insecurity

          - Jealously

          - Group thinking (mob mentality)

          - Laziness

          - Apathy

          - Lack of commitment

          - Lack of support

          - Intolerance

          - Tenseness

          - Fear of change



CASE STUDIES – Checkmate… pg 303


1997: the final match of a rematch took place in the contemplative

          game of chess.


Gary Kasparov:  a former scientist whom many considered to be the

                         best chess player to have ever lived.  He beat a

                         computer the year before.


Deep Blue: a computer programmed to play chess


Psychologists’ beliefs: Psychologists believed that a computer

               preprogrammed with information of any kind would prove no

               match for the thought capacity and perceptions of the

               human mind.


Hypothesis:  That a nonfeeling and nonthinking machine could not

               defeat the ability of the human mind to think abstractly. A

               machine could also not match the human mind’s feelings of

               determination and desire.


Capacities of Deep Blue:  It can consider 300 million possible chess

               moves per second. With each of these 300 million

               possibilities, Deep Blue is programmed to assess the

               situation these moves will put it in.


        - as compared to a human brain: The human brain can evaluate

               only a very small fraction of moves compared to what Deep

               Blue can do.


Kasparov’s strategy: For his rematch with Deep Blue, Kasparov

               planned to copy his strategy from the previous year.


Results: Deep Blue beat Kasparov.  Experts explained that Kasparov’s

             defeat was the result of comparing Deep Blue too much to

             the version he had played against the year before.


Kasparov vs. World:  A unique chess match via the Internet that began in June 1999 and continued for several months, Kasparov squared off against all the players in the world who wanted to participate. A panel of grand masters suggested the world team’s possible moves.


     - # of players: 10,000 worldwide


     - how moves were decided:  Each player would cast their

              votes on the world team’s moves. The move that

              received the greatest number of votes was used.


     - length of game: 4 months (longer than anyone had thought)


     - result:  Kasparov won the hard fought battle, retaining the

                 title of the world’s greatest human chess player.





13-2: Intelligence Testing (pgs. 348-357)


Five Types of Psychological Tests Handout


All psychological tests have one characteristic that makes them both fascinating and remarkably practical—they try to make it possible to find out a great deal about a person in a short time.


Tests can be useful in:

        1.)  Predicting how well a person might do in a particular career

        2.) Assessing an individual’s desires, interests, and attitudes

        3.) Revealing psychological problems.


Uses of tests:

        1.) One virtue of standardized tests is that they can provide

             comparable data about many individuals.

        2.) Tests can show how an individual compares to others.

        3.) Psychologists can use some tests to help people understand

             things about themselves more clearly.

        4.) Using tests to predict behavior can be controversial.

        5.) It is important to keep in mind what the test is measuring.


Dangers of testing: One of the great dangers of testing is that we

        tend to forget that tests are merely tools for measuring and

        predicting human behavior.   We start to think of test results

        (for example, an IQ) as an end in itself. The justification for

        using a test to make decisions about a person’s future depends on

        whether a decision based on test scores would be fairer and

        more accurate than one based on other criteria.


Five Main Types of Psychological Tests


1.) Intelligence test: designed to assess cognitive abilities.


        - 3 examples:   Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale:  a standardized

                                test that assesses intelligence and cognitive

                                abilities in children and adults aged two to 23.


                        Otis-Lennon Ability Test:  This test seeks to measure

                        the cognitive abilities that are related to a student’s

                        ability to learn and succeed in school. 


                        Wechsler Intelligence Tests: The most frequently used

                        IQ tests which yield percentile scores in several areas.

                        Then these ratings are used to compute separate IQ

                        scores for verbal and performance abilities. This type

                        of scoring provides a more detailed picture of the

                        individual’s strengths and weaknesses than a single

                        score does.


2.) Aptitude test: estimates the probability that a person will be

                                successful in learning a specific new skill.


        - 6 examples:   ACT (American College Test)

                                SAT (Scholastic Aptitude Test)

                                LSAT (Law School Admissions Test)

                                MCAT (Medical College Admissions Test)

                               DATE (Differential Aptitude Test)

                                GATB (General Aptitude Test Battery)



3.) Achievement test: measures how much a person has learned in a

                                       given subject or area.


        - 3 examples: any classroom test, workplace tests, safety tests


4.) Interest inventory: measures a person’s preferences and

                   attitudes in a wide variety of activities to identify areas

                   of likely success.


                   The purpose of these measures is to help people find the

                    career that is right for them. It is important to note that

                   although interest inventories can be of great value to

                   people who are undecided about the career path they

                   should take; they provide only one source of

             information.  Along with interests, a student’s abilities

                   should be taken into account. A person should not make

                   an important decision, such as that of career, on the basis

                   of a single test or inventory.


        - 2 examples:   Campbell Interest and Skill Survey

                                KPR (Kuder Preference Record)



5.) Personality test: assesses an individual’s characteristics and

                                  identifies potential problems.





        - 2 types of personality tests:


                1.) Objective test: a limited- or forced-choice test in which

                                        a person must select one of several answers.


                        - 3 examplesMMPI2 (Minnesota Multiphasic

                                                            Personality Inventory)

                                           The items on the MMPI-2 reveal habits,

                                            fears, delusions, sexual attitudes, and

                                          symptoms of psychological disorders.  In

                                          scoring the MMPI, a psychologist looks for

                                          patterns of responses, not a high or low

                                          score on one or all of the scales.


                                     CPI (California Psychological Inventory)

                                        This is similar to the MMPI but is developed

                                      for more general use. Even though it uses

                                      some of the same questions, it does not have

                                       any of the questions that reveal psychiatric

                                       illnesses.  It measures traits such as

                                       responsibility, self-control, and tolerance.

                                       The CPI is used to predict things like

                                        adjustment to stress, leadership, and job



                                         MBTI (Myers-Briggs Test)

                                       The test focuses on how a person takes in

                                        information, makes decisions, and

                                        approaches day-to-day tasks. This test

                                        characterizes personality on four

                                          different scales— extraversion vs.

                                          introversion, intuition vs. sensing, feeling

                                          vs. thinking, and judging vs. perceiving



                2.) Projective test: an unstructured test in which a person

                                               is asked to respond freely, giving his or

                                               her own interpretation of various

                                               ambiguous stimuli. 


                                               These tests are open-ended

                                               examinations that invite people to tell

                                               stories about pictures, diagrams, or

                                               objects. The idea is that the test

                                               material has no established meaning, so

                                               the story a person tells must say

                                               something about his or her needs,

                                               wishes, fears, and other aspects of

                                               personality.  In other words, the test

                                               taker will project his or her unconscious

                                               feelings onto the test items.


                        - 2 examples Rorschach Inkblot Test

                                          The theory underlying the test is that

                                        anything that someone does or says will

                                        reveal an aspect of that person’s





                                        TAT (Thematic Apperception Test)

                                          This test consists of a series of 20 cards

                                        containing pictures of vague but suggestive

                                        situations.  The individual is asked to tell a

                                        story about the picture, indicating how the

                                        situation shown on the card developed, what

                                        the  characters are thinking and feeling, and

                                        how it will end. The TAT is used to urge

                                        clients to speak freely about their problems,

                                        and reveals the client's needs.



PLEASE NOTE: Any I.Q. or personality tests you can do on the internet are usually NOT valid in any way.



What is Intelligence Handout (first part)


E. G. Boring:  a well-known Harvard psychologist in the 1920's.


        - definition: "Intelligence is whatever intelligence tests



Wechsler:  one of the most influential researchers in the area of



        - definition:  "Intelligence is the global capacity of a person to

                            act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal

                            effectively with his/her environment."


Modern psychology textbooks’ working definition: "Intelligence is the

                                          general ability to perform cognitive tasks."


Behaviorally oriented psychologists' definition:  "Intelligence is the

                            capacity to learn from experience or the capacity to

                            adapt to one's environment."


Robert Sternberg: a leading educational psychologist who combines

                             most theories.


        - definition: "Intelligence is the cognitive ability of an individual

                            to learn from experience, to reason well, to

                            remember important information, and to cope with

                            the demands of daily living."


Intelligence: the ability to acquire new ideas and new behavior, and to

                     adapt to new situations.


        - 2 points:

                1.) Most psychologists believe that intelligence is the ability

                   to acquire new ideas and new behavior, and to adapt to

                     new situations

                2.) Others believe that intelligence is what allows you to do

                    well on intelligence tests and in school.


Charles Spearman: British psychologist who proposed the two-factor theory of intelligence.


        - date: 1904


        - Two-factor theory: proposes that two factors contribute to an

                                         individual’s intelligence.


                * factor g: represents a person’s general intelligence - a

                                 person’s ability to perform complex mental work,

                                 such as problem solving.


                * factor s:  represents a person’s specific mental abilities,

                                 such as verbal or math skills.


        - belief about intelligence: Spearman believed that every

                                                   individual had a certain level of

                                                   general intelligence.


        - 2 points critics make:

                1.) Critics argue that g does not measure many other kinds

                    of mental abilities such as motor, musical, or creative


                2.) They also argue that intelligence cannot be reduced to

                    just g and expressed by a single IQ score.


L.L. Thurston: Psychologist who was a major opponent of Spearman's theory, and proposed the Seven Primary Mental Abilities model.


        - date: 1938


        - Thurston's 3 points:  He --

                1.) Concluded that there was no evidence for the general

                    intelligence that Spearman had identified.

                2.) Proposed that intelligence is composed of seven

                    primary mental abilities.

                3.) Believed that a person’s intelligence needed to be a

                    measurement of all seven mental abilities and not just a

                    measurement of one factor.


                * 7 primary mental abilities:

                        1.) Verbal comprehension:  The ability to understand

                                                                 the meaning of words,

                                                                 concepts, and ideas.


                        2.) Numerical ability:  The ability to use numbers

                                                          quickly to compute answers to



                        3.) Spatial relations: The ability to visualize and

                                                        manipulate patterns and forms in



                        4.) Perceptual speed: The ability to grasp perceptual

                                                         details quickly and accurately and

                                                        to determine similarities and

                                                        differences between stimuli.


                        5.) Word fluency:  The ability to use words quickly and

                                                    fluently in performing such tasks as

                                                    rhyming, solving anagrams, and doing

                                                    crossword puzzles.


                        6.) Memory:  The ability to recall information such as

                                            lists of words, mathematical formulas,

                                            and definitions.


                        7.) Inductive reasoning:  The ability to derive general

                                                              rules and principles from

                                                              presented information.


Howard Gardner:  Harvard University professor who rejected the

                             traditional idea of intelligence as primarily the

                             ability to think logically.


        - dates: 1983, 1999




        - 4 points:

                1.) He believes the traditional idea of intelligence is

                    inadequate because it omits many important skills.

                2.)  He argues for a broader perspective that includes eight

                     types of intelligence

                3.) His research on the results of brain disease convinced

                    him that humans possess these eight different and often

                    unrelated intellectual capacities, or intelligences.

                4.)  He also argues that the biological organization of the

                     brain affects one’s strength in each of the eight areas.


        - Frames of Mind: Gardner's 1983 book which asserted the

                           existence of at least seven intelligences:

                           linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial,

                           bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal

                           and intrapersonal.


                           He now believes there may be as many as

                           nine types of intelligence.


        - 8 (or 9) types of intelligence:


                ^ Linguistic/verbal: the ability to utilize language.


                ^ Logical/mathematical: the ability to process and compute

                                                      problems and equations.


                ^ Spatial: the ability to comprehend shapes and images in

                               three dimensions, or the ability to find your way

                                around an environment and to form mental images


                ^ Musical:  the ability to create and perceive pitch, rhythm

                                 patterns, and the ability to perform and compose



                ^ Body/Kinesthetic:  the ability to perceive and control

                                                movement, balance, agility, and grace.


                ^ Interpersonal:  the ability to interact with and understand

                                           others and to interpret their behavior.


                ^ Intrapersonal:  the ability to understand and sense



                ^ Naturalist:  a person’s ability to identify and classify

                                     patterns in nature.


                ^ Existential:  the ability to understand the experience of



        - 2 points of critics:

                1.) Argue that some of what Gardner called “intelligence”

                    are really skills.

                2.) Claim that intelligence and talent (or skill) are two

                    different things.


Multiple Intelligences Handout


     - 3 characteristics of human intelligence:

           1.) A set of skills the enable a person to resolve genuine

               problems encountered in life.

           2.) The ability to create an effective product or offer a

               service that is valued in a culture.

           3.) The potential for recognizing or creating problems,

               thereby establishing the necessity for the new



   - 5 more points on MI:

        1.) All human beings possess all nine intelligences in

            varying amounts.

        2.) Each person has a different intellectual composition.

        3.) We can improve education by addressing the multiple

             intelligences of our students.

        4.) These intelligences are located in different areas of

             the brain and can either work independently or


        5.) These intelligences may define the human species.


     - 12 principles of MI (by J. Keith Rogers):

           1.) Intelligence is not singular: intelligences are multiple.

            2.) Every person is a unique blend of dynamic intelligences.

            3.) Intelligences vary in development, both within and among


            4.) All intelligences are dynamic.

            5.) Multiple intelligences can be identified and described.

            6.) Every person deserves opportunities to recognize and develop

                the multiplicity of intelligences.

            7.) The use of one of the intelligences can be used to enhance


            8.) Personal background density and dispersion are critical to

                knowledge, beliefs, and skills in all intelligences.

            9.) All intelligences provide alternate resources and potential

                 capacities to become more human, regardless of age or


            10.) A pure intelligence is rarely seen.

            11.) Developmental theory applies to the theory of multiple


            12.) Any list of intelligences is subject to change as we learn

                  more about multiple intelligences.




Howard Gardner: the multiple intelligence guy.


        - who embraced his ideas: teachers and parents


        - 3 arguments of critics:

                1.) Critics doubt that the multiple intelligences theory

                    should be implemented in the classroom.

                2.) Critics argue that although Gardner’s theory has helped

                    teachers appreciate the many talents of students, the

                    theory is weak.

                3.) Critics argue that although a teacher may tap into a

                    child’s strongest intelligence by using various

                    instructional approaches, that child must still rely on

                    verbal and math skills to succeed in higher education and

                    a career.


        - use of theory by teachers: Teachers usually implement

                                   Gardner’s theory by attacking a concept from

                                    many different perspectives or viewpoints.



                * Collins, 1998:  to teach kids about the oceans, teachers

                        have them write about cleaning a fish, draw a sea

                        creature, role-play a sea creature, use diagrams to

                        compare and contrast ships, and so forth.


Since Gardner’s theory has yet to be stringently tested….


        - Gardner's quote:  “We are not yet certain of the goodness of

                                        the idea of multiple intelligences.”


Robert Sternberg:  proposed a triarchic theory of intelligence.


        - date: 1985


        - Triarchic Theory: proposes that intelligence can be divided into

                                       three ways of processing information.


                * basis for division: on the idea that there are three main

                                               ways of processing information.


                * Analytic thinking: the ability to solve problems.  These are

                                              the type of skills which are traditionally

                                              measured on intelligence tests.


                * Creative thinking: applying creative thinking to solving

                                               problems and dealing with new



                * Practical thinking:  using practical thinking skills to help

                                                adjust to and cope with one’s



        - what Sternberg stresses: He stresses the point that

                          traditional intelligence tests do not measure and

                          assess intelligences found in everyday life.


        - problem with his theory:  Like Gardner’s theory, though,

                     Sternberg’s theory makes it difficult to measure

                      intelligence, at least with traditional types of



What is Intelligence Handout (the rest of it)


Abilities of Intelligence:  Sternberg believes that intelligence is comprised of three separate, though interrelated abilities: analytical, creative, and practical.


        - Analytical:  Try to solve familiar problems by using strategies

                             that manipulate the elements of a problem or the

                             relationship among the elements (e.g., comparing,



        - Creative:  Try to solve new kinds of problems that require us to

                           think about the problem and its elements in a new

                           way (e.g., inventing, designing)


        - Practical:  Try to solve problems that apply what we know to

                           everyday contexts (e.g., applying, using)



Sternberg's Adaptive Behavior Checklist


Practical Problem-Solving




ü      Reasons logically and well

ü      Identifies connections among ideas

ü      Sees all aspects of a problem

ü      Keeps an open mind and responds thoughtfully to others' ideas

ü      Sizes up situations well

ü      Gets to the heart of problems

ü      Interprets information accurately

ü      Makes good decisions

ü      Goes to original sources for basic information

ü      Poses problems in an optimal way

ü      Is a good source of ideas

ü      Perceives implied assumptions and conclusions

ü      Deals with problems resourcefully


Verbal Ability



ü      Speaks clearly and articulately and is verbally fluent

ü      Converses well

ü      Is knowledgeable about a particular area of subject matter

ü      Studies hard

ü      Reads widely with high comprehension

ü      Writes without difficulty

ü      Sets aside time for reading

ü      Displays good vocabulary


Social Competence



ü      Accepts others for what they are

ü      Admits mistakes

ü      Displays interest in the world at large

ü      Is on time for appointments

ü      Has social conscience

ü      Thinks before speaking and doing

ü      Makes fair judgments

ü      Assesses well the relevance of information to a problem at hand

ü      Is sensitive to other people's needs and desires

ü      Displays interest in the immediate environment



Beliefs on Why Intelligent People Fail:  see below

        - 3 types of reasons:

                1.) Cognitive-Oriented

                2.) Affective/Socially-Oriented

                3.) Cognitive/Volitionally- Oriented



Sternberg's Beliefs about Why Intelligent People Fail





Ø      Distractibility and lack of concentration

Ø      Spreading oneself too thin or too thick

Ø      Inability or unwillingness to see the forest for the trees

Ø      Lack of balance between critical, analytic thinking and creative, synthetic thinking

Ø      Using the wrong abilities




Oriented Reasons


Ø      Misattribution of blame

Ø      Fear of failure

Ø      Excessive self-pity

Ø      Excessive dependency

Ø      Wallowing in personal difficulties

Ø      Too little or too much self-confidence




Oriented Reasons


Ø      Failure to initiate

Ø      Lack of motivation

Ø      Lack of perseverance and preservation

Ø      Inability to complete tasks and to follow through

Ø      Lack of impulse control

Ø      Inability to translate thought into action

Ø      Procrastination

Ø      Lack of product orientation

Ø      Inability to delay gratification




Emotional intelligence:  includes four major aspects of interpersonal

                                     and intrapersonal intelligences.


        - Mayer and Salovev, 1997: discovered the four major aspects of

                                                  emotional intelligence.


                * 4 major aspects:

                        1.) The ability to perceive and express emotions

                            accurately and appropriately.

                2.) The ability to use emotions while thinking.

                        3.) The ability to understand emotions and use the

                            knowledge effectively.

                        4.) The ability to regulate one’s emotions to promote

                            personal growth.


        - view of proponents:  have linked emotional intelligence to

                                           success in the workplace.


        - view of critics:  argue that emotional intelligence is simply a

                                   measurement of extraversion.


     - extravert:  Being involved; outgoing.  The preferred focus

                     is on people and things.  Totally comfortable in

                     social situations.


     - introvert: Solitary; being alone.  The preferred focus is on

                    thoughts and ideas.  One who is introverted is

                    more likely to spend time alone or in

                    contemplation, as these activities are rewarding.

                    They may avoid social situations entirely, not

                    because of shyness, but because they choose to.


Chinese: used aptitude tests as civil service exams more than 4,000 years ago.


     - aptitude: An inherent ability, as for learning; a talent. A

                   quickness in learning and understanding.


Sir Francis Galton: developed the first modern intelligence tests


     - 2 places where his techniques were used (dates): at the

                 World Fair in Chicago (1883) and the International

                 Health Exhibition in London (1884).


     - resemblance to modern tests: They do not resemble the

                                          tests used today.


     - 4 things his test included: It measured muscle strength,

                       the size of people’s heads, reaction time, and

                       various thresholds.


     - his conclusion: From his tests, he proposed that intelligence

                         was completely inherited.


Alfred Binet:  the French psychologist who worked to develop a useful

                       intelligence test.


        - partner:  Theodore Simon


        - date: 1904


        - reason for test development: Binet was asked by the Paris

                          school authorities to devise a means of picking out

                          “slow learners” so they could be placed in special

                          classes from which they might better profit


        - 5 points:

                1.) Binet was unable to define intelligence, but he believed it

                    was complex.

                2.) He thought intelligence was reflected in the things  

                     children do—making common-sense judgments, telling

                     the meanings of words, and solving problems and puzzles.

                3.) Binet also assumed that whatever intelligence was, it

                    increased with age. That is, older children had more

                    intelligence than younger children.

                4.) By asking the same questions of many children, Binet

                    determined the average age at which a particular

                    question could be answered.

                                * see example on page 352

                5.) A slow learner was one who had a mental age that was

                     less than his or her chronological age.


Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale:  a standardized test that assesses

                                                        intelligence and cognitive abilities

                                                        in children and adults aged two to



        - 4 points:

                1.) The Stanford-Binet, like the original test, groups test

                     items by age level.

                2.) To stimulate and maintain the child’s interest, several

                     tasks are included, ranging from defining words to

                     drawing pictures and explaining events in daily life.

                3.) Children are tested one at a time.

                4.) Examiners must carry out standardized instructions

                     while putting the child at ease, getting him to pay

                     attention, and encouraging him to try as hard as he can


        - Intelligence quotient (I.Q.): standardized measure of

                                                       intelligence based on a scale in

                                                       which 100 is average.


        - mental age: the average age of those who also received the

                              same score as that individual.


        - chronological age: actual age


        - formula for scoring: dividing a child’s mental age by the

                                          chronological age and multiplying by 100.


                IQ =  __mental age            X 100

                          chronological age


        - a score of 100: average performance at any given age.


                * example:  So an 8-year-old child who scored at the mental

                                  age of 8 would have an IQ of 100.


                * 3 points:

                        1.) Researchers assign a score of 100 to the average

                            performance at any given age.

                        2.) If you have an IQ of 100, for example, this means

                            that 50 percent of the test takers who are your age

                            performed worse than you.

                        3.) In addition, test scores for several abilities are now

                            reported instead of one general score.


                * This test is no longer widely used.


Otis-Lennon Ability Test:  This test seeks to measure the cognitive

                                           abilities that are related to a student’s

                                           ability to learn and succeed in school.  


        - 2 things it assesses: verbal and nonverbal reasoning abilities


Wechsler Intelligence Tests: The most frequently used IQ tests

                which yield percentile scores in several areas.  Then these

                ratings are used to compute separate IQ scores for verbal

                and performance abilities. This type of scoring provides a

                more detailed picture of the individual’s strengths and

                weaknesses than a single score does.


        - WAIS-R: Wechsler-Adult Intelligence Scale


                * ages: 17+ years old


        - WISC III: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children


                * ages: 6-16 years old


        - WPPSI-R: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of



                * ages: 4-6 1/2 years old


        - 4 areas of scores: vocabulary, information, arithmetic, and

                                        picture arrangement. 

               ** These separate ratings are used to compute separate IQ

                     scores for verbal and performance abilities.


                * why important?: This type of scoring provides a more

                                            detailed picture of the individual’s

                                            strengths and weaknesses than a single

                                            score does.


        - % of people who score between 70-130: 95%


                * "normal" IQ: 85-115 (50% of people score between 90-110)


           * gifted IQ: 115-179

                ^ Mildly Gifted IQ: 115 - 129

                ^ Moderately Gifted IQ: 130 - 144

                ^ Highly Gifted IQ: 145 - 159


           * genius IQ: 160-200

                ^ Exceptionally Gifted IQ: 160 - 179

                ^ Profoundly Gifted IQ: 180+


                ^ MENSA:  Mensa was founded in England in 1946

                              by a scientist and lawyer. They had the

                              idea of forming a society for bright

                              people, the only qualification for

                              membership of which was a high IQ.


                     + Aims: The aims are, to create a society that

                               is non-political and free from all racial

                               or religious distinctions.


                     + membership: The society welcomes people

                                       from every walk of life whose

                                       IQ is in the top 2% of the

                                       population, with the objective

                                       of enjoying each other's

                                       company and participating in a

                                       wide range of social and cultural



                     + numbers: Today there are some 100,000

                                  Mensans in 100 countries throughout

                                  the world. There are active Mensa

                                  organizations in over 40 countries on

                                  every continent except Antarctica


                ^ Einstein's IQ: about 160


        - Scores of below 70: classify one as mentally handicapped.  (Not

                                          only must the person have a low IQ but

                                          also difficulty adapting to the normal

                                          demands of living independently. Only

                                          about 1% of the population meet both

                                          criteria,  with male outnumbering females



                * mildly handicapped (educable):  55-69


                * moderately handicapped (trainable): 40-54


                * severely handicapped: 25-39


                * profoundly handicapped: below 25


6 points on I.Q. scores:

        1.) IQ scores seem to be most useful when related to school


        2.) They are quite accurate in predicting which people will do well

             in schools, colleges, and universities.

        3.) Critics of IQ testing do not question this predictive ability,

             although they do wonder whether such tests actually measure


        4.) Most psychologists agree that intelligence is the ability to

             acquire new ideas and new behavior and to adapt to new


        5.) Generally, IQ tests measure the ability to solve certain types

             of problems.

        6.) An IQ score measures performance; it does not explain it.


Controversy over I.Q. testing:  The debate around I.Q. testing center

                                                  on these three questions:

                - Do I.Q. tests directly measure ability? (no)

                - Do genetic differences or environmental inequalities cause

                  two people to receive different scores on intelligence


- Are I.Q. tests culturally biased?


Heritability:  the degree to which a characteristic is related to

                      inherited genetic factors.


        - increase of I.Q.:  Researchers have found that as genetic

                                      relationship increases, say, from parent and

                                      child to identical twins, the similarity of I.Q.

                                      also increases.


Twin studies and I.Q.:  The best way to study the effects of nature

                   and nurture is to study identical twins that have been

                   separated at birth and raised in different environments.

                   They have the same genetic make up, but their

                    environmental factors are not the same.


        - Thomas Bouchard:  Psychology researcher at the University of

                                        Minnesota who studies twins. He is

                                        considered of the leading authorities on

                                        twins.  He has performed numerous studies

                                        comparing twins that were separated at

                                        birth and placed in adoptive homes to see

                                        the links between heredity and environment.


                * University of Minnesota: It pays for his studies.


                * studies he has conducted: more than 100 sets of twins

                                                           who were raised apart from one



                * 2 points:

                        1.) Bouchard concluded that IQ is affected by genetic

                           factors—a conclusion supported by the discovery of

                           a specific gene for human intelligence (Plomin, 1997).

2.) Bouchard believes 70% of IQ variance can be

   attributed to heredity, but others (Plomin et al.,

   1994) found the hereditary estimate to be only 52%.


9 points on the effect of environment on I.Q.:

        1.) Regarding environment, studies show that brothers and/or

            sisters raised in the same environment are more likely to have

            similar IQs than siblings raised apart.  Environment,

            therefore, does impact IQs.

2.) Some studies show that quality preschool programs help raise

      I.Q.s initially, but the increase begins to fade after some



                - Head Start: a federally funded preschool program

                                      that exposes economically disadvantaged

                                      youths to enriching experiences.


3.) Participating children are less likely to be in special education


4.) Participating children are less likely to be held back.

5.) Participating children are more likely to graduate from high

     school than are children without such preschool experiences

     (Zigler, Styfco, & Gilman, 1993).

6.) Each year of school missed may drop a person’s IQ as much as

     5 points.  (Ceci, 1991)

7.) The richness of the home environment affects I.Q.

8.) The quality of food in the home all affects I.Q.

9.) The number of brothers and sisters in the family affects IQ.


        - Zigler, Styfco and Gilman, 1993:  Found that children

                         participating in preschool programs are more

                         likely to graduate from high school than are

                         children without such preschool experiences


MORE ABOUT... pg 356

Family size and I.Q.: The classic study of family size and IQ was

                                  conducted in the Netherlands. It was based on

                                  the military examinations of more than 386,000

                                  Dutch people.


        - research findings: Researchers found that the brightest

                                                               children came from the smallest families and

                                        had few, if any, brothers and sisters when

                                        they were born.


                                        Thus, the first-born child in a family of two

                                         was usually brighter than the last child in a

                                         family of 10.


        - difference between birth positions:  The differences in IQ,

                                      however, from one birth-order position to

                                      another average only about one-quarter point.


        - effect of larger families on I.Q.: Larger families increase the

                        amount of time a child spends with other children and

                        decrease the amount of parental attention he or she

                         receives.  When this happens, development of

                         intelligence has been known to suffer

                        (Zajonc & Markus, 1976).


                * effect on interpersonal skills: interpersonal skills may



Cultural Bias:  an aspect of an intelligence test in which the wording

                       used in questions may be more familiar to people of one

                       social group than to another group – hence, allow the

                       favored group to score higher.


        - reason some tests are biased: Psychologists admit that some

                                      tests have been biased because they assess

                                      accumulated knowledge, which is dependent

                                      on a child’s environment and opportunities in

                                      that environment.


        - Henry Goddard: Psychologist who set up a program in which

                          a staff administered psychological tests to

                          immigrants arriving at Ellis Island.


           * his “experiment”: He gave very biased intelligence

                                 tests to immigrants coming into the

                                 U.S. in the early 1900's.  They had

                                 questions on them like: “What is

                                 Crisco?” and “Who is Christy

                                 Mathewson?” (a pitcher for the New

                                 York Giants).  Items a non-American

                                 would never get correct.


           * findings: In 1917, Goddard reported that 80 percent

                       of the Hungarians, 79 percent of the

                       Italians, and 87 percent of the Russians

                       tested were feebleminded.


           * How Congress used this “scientific” evidence: Used to

                                support the restrictive immigration

                                laws of 1924.


     - Law and cultural bias:  There were two legal cases that

                                   challenged the use of intelligence

                                   tests on the basis of cultural bias.


           * Larry P. v. Riles (1979) and P.A.S.E. v Hannon (1980):  

                       In these cases parents of African American

                       children claimed that their children had been

                       placed in classes for the mentally retarded

                       based solely on culturally biased IQ tests.


                ^ findings:  The judges in these two cases reached

                              opposite opinions. One found the tests

                              to be culturally biased, while the other

                              found the tests to be valid and



Adrian Dove: Psychologist who intentionally designed questions on the,

                     Dove Counterbalance Intelligence Test, to be culturally

                     biased.  He wanted to prove that standard intelligence

                     tests lacked validity because of a pro-white cultural



        - Dove Counterbalance Intelligence Test:  This test was written

                         to make white people feel ignorant by asking them for

                         obscure general knowledge from the black experience

                         of the 50’s and 60’s. (The test involves some vicious

                         racial stereotyping,--craps, welfare, alcohol abuse.)


        * what it stressed:  It stressed that cultural background can

                                        influence performance on an intelligence



        * what group did he try to be biased against: Middle-class

                                                          white people.


E. D. Hirsch, Jr.: is the founder and chairman of the nonprofit

                      Core Knowledge Foundation and professor  

                      emeritus of education and humanities at the

                      University of Virginia.  In 1996, he wrote

                      Cultural Literacy and caused a huge stir in

                      American education.  He is the leading voice in

                      what can best be described as the “back to

                      basics” movement. 


                      He argues that one of the keys to success is

                      an understanding of the predominant culture.

                      He called such knowledge cultural literacy.


     - cultural literacy: includes common events and language

                shared by members of the culture.


                Cultural Literacy is about reading... in its

                widest sense. It is about understanding the meaning

                of words based on a background of common

                knowledge that enables one to make sense of what

                is read. It is a simple fact that the more one

                reads, the more one can understand what is read,

                the more enjoyable reading becomes and... the

                more culturally literate one becomes.


     - Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know:

                 His book which offered a list of facts, quotations

                 and information considered by Hirsch to be

                 essential knowledge for all Americans.


          * eight subjects:  science, politics, literature, art,

                                history, entertainment, sports, and




11-2: Language


Most important activity: understanding and speaking a language.


Language: the expression of ideas through symbols and sounds that

                are arranged according to rules.


        - 4 points:

                1.) Language is a system of communication that involves using

                    rules to make and combine symbols in ways that produce

                    meaningful words and sentences.

                2.) Language lets us communicate facts and ideas.

                3.) It allows us to tell each other about the past, present,

                    and future.

                4.) We solve problems and make decisions based on learning

                     that is transmitted through language.


        - 3 elements of language:

                        1.) phonemes (units of sound)

                        2.) morphemes (units of meaning)

                        3.) syntax (units of organization).


        - semantics: The study of meaning.  This is the most complex

                            aspect of language.


Phonemes: an individual sound that is a basic structural element of



        - how represented: by a single letter (such as consonants like

                                     t or vowels like e) or a combination of letters,

                                     such as sh


        - # of different recognizable sounds: We can produce about 100

                                                            different recognizable sounds.


                * all of them: but not all sounds are used in all languages

                * Babies: Babies have the ability to form all the sounds,

                      but as they learn their native language they

                      lose the ability to form sounds they no longer



        - # of sounds in the English language:  43 sounds


        - range in # of sounds used in other languages: 15-85


Morphemes: the smallest unit of meaning in a given language


        - composed of: one or more phonemes.


        - 4 things it can be: a word, a letter, a prefix, or a suffix.


        - single morpheme examples: book, love, and reason


        - double morpheme examples: loves, relearn, and walked


Difference between phonemes and morphemes: A phoneme is only

                                    a sound; a morpheme has meaning.


Syntax: language rules that govern how words can be combined to

             form meaningful phrases and sentences.


        - language rules: In English we follow grammatical rules, such as

                                  placing adjectives in front of nouns.  Every

                                  language has these rules, although the rules

                                  differ from language to language.


Semantics: the study of meaning in language.


        - 2 points on semantics:

                1.) The same word can have several different meanings.

                2.)  One's knowledge of a word's meaning depends partly on

                      its context.


3 ideas on language development:

        1.) Children learn language as a result of operant conditioning. 

            (Skinner & the Behaviorists)

        2.) Children learn language through observation, exploration, and

             imitation. (Social learning psychologists)

        3.) Infants possess an innate capacity for language; that is,

             children inherit a mental program that enables them to learn

             grammar. (Chomsky)


B.F. Skinner: American behaviorist - the reinforcement guy. He believed that children learned language as a result of operant conditioning.


        - how language development is rewarded:  When children utter

                   sounds that are similar to adult speech patterns, their

                   behavior is reinforced through smiles and extra

                   attention; therefore, children repeat those sounds.

                   Eventually children learn to produce speech.


        - 2 criticisms:

                1.) Critics state that children understand language before

                    they speak—and before they receive any reinforcement.

                2.) They also believe that children learn the rules of

                   language before they receive any feedback on speaking



Social learning advocates' idea on language development: Children

                                                learn language through observation,

                                                exploration, and imitation


        - 3 points:

                1.) Children use language to get attention, ask for help, or to

                    gain other forms of social contact.

                2.) Parents can stimulate language acquisition by responding

                    to and encouraging language development.

                3.) These psychologists believe that both innate and

                     environmental factors play a part in how a child learns





Noam Chomsky: is a cognitive psychologist and is the Institute

                 Professor Emeritus of linguistics at the

                 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). 


                 Chomsky's work in linguistics has had major

                 implications for psychology and its fundamental

                 direction in the 20th century. His theory of a

                 universal grammar was seen by many as a direct

                 challenge to the established behaviorist theories of

                 the time and had major consequences for

                 understanding how language is learned by children

                 and what, exactly, is the ability to interpret



Transformational grammar: Transformational grammar is a system for

                                           describing the rules that determine all the

                                           sentences that can possibly be formed in

                                           any language.


language-acquisition device (LAD): Chomsky claims that each of us is

                                born with innate brain structures that make it

                                relatively easy to learn the rules of language. 

                                LAD's include inborn mechanisms that guide a

                                person’s learning of the unique rules of his or her

                                native language.


Noam Chomsky: see above.


        - his belief about reinforcement and imitation: He believed that

                              reinforcement and imitation do contribute to

                              language development, he did not believe that all

                              the complex rules of language could be learned

                              that way.


        - theory (1957):  Chomsky theorized that infants possess an

                                   innate capacity for language; that is, children

                                   inherit a mental program that enables them to

                                   learn grammar.



        - effect of culture on language:  If Chomsky is right, then we


                                   would expect that all children go through

                                   similar stages of language development, no

                                   matter what culture or language group they

                                   belong to.


Nature v. Nurture (heredity v. environment):  The nurture

            argument assumes that we learn language through

            reinforcement. The nature argument assumes that the

            capacity for language is inborn.


4 stages of language development

                1.) Babbling

                2.) Uttering single words

                3.) Putting words together to express ideas

                4.) Forming complex, compound sentences


        - Before true language development

                * age range: birth to 4 months


                * at birth: infants can cry and produce other sounds

                                 indicating distress.


                * 2 months: Around 2 months of age, infants begin to coo.


                        ^ cooing: Cooing refers to long, drawn-out sounds such

                                      as oooh or eeeh.


        - Stage 1: Babbling

                * 4 months:  the age infants reach the first stage of

                                   language development .


                        ^ babbling: Babbling includes sounds found in

                                         all languages, such as dadada and bababa.



                                + what infants learn: When babbling, infants learn

                                                        to control their vocal cords and to

                                                        make, change, repeat, and imitate

                                                        the sounds of their parents.


                * 9 months: Infants refine their babbling to increasingly

                                  include sounds that are part of their native



                * deaf children:  Whereas in children who can hear, babbling

                                           is oral, deaf children babble by using hand

                                           signals.  They repeat the same hand

                                           signals over and over again.


        - Stage 2: Uttering single words:

                * age range: 12-24 months


                * 12 months: infants begin to utter single words.


                * use of single words: They use these words to describe  

                                                  familiar objects and people, such as

                                                  da-da or doggie.


        - Stage 3: Putting words together to express ideas

                * age range: end of second year


                * what:  Children place two words together to express an

                             idea.  Children may say “Milk gone” to indicate that

                             the milk has spilled or “Me play” to mean “I want to



                * rules of grammar: This stage indicates that the child is

                                               beginning to learn the rules of grammar.


                * vocabulary: The child’s vocabulary has expanded to about

                                     50 to 100 words and continues to expand



        - Stage 4: Forming complex, compound sentences

                * age range: 2-3 years


                * telegraphic speech: a pattern of speaking in which the

                                                 child leaves out articles such as the,

                                                 prepositions such as with, and parts of



                * by age 5: language development is largely complete,

                                 although vocabulary and sentence complexity

                                 continue to develop.


PSYCHOLOGY and YOU…. pg 307


Bilingualism: is the ability to speak and understand two languages.



        - 2 points:

                1.) Although it takes children longer to master two languages

                    rather than just one, bilingual people can express their

                    thoughts in a wide variety of ways.

                2.) Bilingual children also learn early that there are

                    different ways of expressing the same idea.


        - bilingual: someone who speaks two languages


     - multilingual: person who speaks more than two languages.


           * as the norm: Multilingualism isn't unusual; in fact, it's

                            the norm for most of the world's

                            societies. It's common for a person to

                            know and use three, four, or even more

                            languages fluently


     - the U.S.: the U.S. is quite unusual among the countries of

                    the world in that many of its citizens speak only

                    English, and they are rarely encouraged to

                    become fluent in any other language.


           * statistics:

                ^ 1990 census: states that one in seven or 31.8

                                  million people speak a language other

                                  than English in their home


                ^ 2000 census: 215 million Americans (82.1%) speak

                                  only English at home.


                                  47 million (17.9%) speak another

                                  language, of whom 28 million speak



Animals and language:  Language involves more than just

                                    communicating—it involves rules of grammar.

                                    It involves combining words or phrases into

                                    meaningful sentences.


                                    Although animals do not possess the ability to

                                    use grammatical rules, they have been taught

                                    to communicate with humans.


2 uses of language: to communicate their culture and express their



Benjamin Whorf (1956):  argued that language affects our basic

                                        perceptions of the physical world.


        - linguistic relativity: refers to the idea that language influences



        - Inuit example: Consider the word snow. Whorf estimated that the Inuit have

                                            many words for snow (including separate words for damp snow,

                                           falling snow, and melting snow) because their survival depends

                                            upon traveling and living in snow.  According to Whorf’s theory,

                                            different terms for snow help the Inuit see the different types

                                            of snow as different. On the other hand, Whorf claimed that

                                            Americans have one word for snow.


        - criticism: Critics have pointed out that Americans actually have

                          many words for snow.


Culture and language:  It is difficult to separate culture from

                                   language when studying the use of language and

                                   the perceptions it influences.


Words and stereotypes:  Some people argue that certain words in

                                        language create gender stereotypes.


        - stereotypes:  a set of assumptions about people in a given

                      category, either positive or negative, often

                      based on half-truths and non-truths.


                * examples: For example, a chairman may be a man or a

                                   woman. The use of pronouns also affects our

                                   thinking. Nurses, secretaries, and school

                                   teachers are often referred to as she, while

                                   doctors, engineers, and presidents are often

                                   referred to as he.


                * Institutional guidelines:  Many organizations have

                                                         instituted guidelines for the use

                                                         of nonsexist language.