Philosophers and   Philosophies

"I can doubt everything, except one thing, and that is the very fact that I doubt."
 --- Descartes

 Philosophers: Main Page : General link.

Rene Descartes
Immanuel Kant
Cesare Beccaria
Thomas Hobbes
Adam Smith
Gotthold Lessing
John Locke
Baruch Spinoza
Thomas Paine
Hugo Grotius
David Hume
Thomas Jefferson
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Edward Gibbon

Denis Diderot


 Rationalism : Basic definition. : Rationalism

 CIN - Age of Rationalism (1648-1789)

Continental Rationalism [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]

 Moral Rationalism [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]

 MODERN PHILOSOPHY: The Philosophy of Rationalism

 Modern Philosophy: The Beginning of Modern Science


 Rationalism vs. Empiricism


 British Empiricism [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]

 ILTweb: Study Place: Empiricism



 EMPIRICISM AND THE PHILOSOPHY OF MIND : This is a tough source to understand. - Results for empiricism


 xrefer - Empiricism

Rene Descartes:

 Renee Descartes and  Descartes' Life

 Exploration of Descartes project

 Rene Descartes (1596 - 1650)

 Biography of Descartes: Catholic Encyclopedia

 Descartes: Life and Chronology

 René Descartes' Life and Works

 Island of Freedom - René Descartes

 History of Philosophy: Descartes

 The Philosophy of Descartes: Internet Encyclopedia

MODERN PHILOSOPHY: The Philosophy of Rationalism : Scroll down a little.

 Descartes' "Discourse on the Method" (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy) : PRIMARY SOURCE

 Descartes' "Meditations of First Philosophy" (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy): PRIMARY SOURCE


René Descartes

 Rene Descartes

 RENÉ DESCARTES AND THE LEGACY OF MIND/BODY DUALISM , René Descartes , and  The 17th Century: Reaction to the Dualism of Mind and Body


Thomas Hobbes:

ILTweb: Study Place: Hobbes, Thomas

 Island of Freedom - Thomas Hobbes

 Thomas Hobbes (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

 Björn's Guide To Philosophy - Hobbes

 Thomas Hobbes : A Short Biography


 A Brief Life of Thomas Hobbes, 1588-1679 : Primary source by one of his contemporaries

 The Elements of Law Natural and Politic , and  LEVIATHAN : PRIMARY SOURCES

 The Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes : Another PRIMARY SOURCE... but this one has a review.

 Thomas Hobbes

John Locke:

 John Locke : From Stanford

 John Locke [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] : Best pick.

 John Locke and  John Locke

 John Locke Foundation

 John Locke, 1632-1704

 The Galileo Project : Search for him.

 John Locke - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 ILTweb: Study Place: John Locke

 From Revolution to Reconstruction: Biographies: Joh Locke

 Island of Freedom - John Locke


 John Locke : A link to his writings.

 John Locke (1632-1704)

 Locke, John. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001

 Philosophers : John Locke

 John Locke Quotes - The Quotations Page

 The Locke Institute Home Page

 The Works of John Locke and  Guide to Locke's Essay

 John Locke

Modern History Sourcebook: John Locke (1632-1704): Some Thoughts ... : Primary source.  You can find all his writings on this site

 Modern History Sourcebook: John Locke: Two Treatises of Government ... : Primary source.

Hugo Grotius:

Huig de Groot (Hugo Grotius)

Hugo Grotius - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hugo Grotius

Grotius, Hugo. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001

Hugo Grotius - Willem Maas' Guide to Grotius Resources

Grotius on International Law  and  On the Law of War and Peace: Hugo Grotius : Primary sources.

Hugo Grotius: Naturalist, Eclectic, or Theonomist?

Hugo Grotius - Willem Maas' Guide to Grotius Resources

Oxford Scholarship Online: Hugo Grotius and International Relations

Grotius, Hugo

Glimpses #122: Hugo Grotius, Father of International Law

Grotius Bio: The Online Library of Liberty

Grotius, Hugo on

 Hugo Grotius

Hugo Grotius Biography / Profile of Hugo Grotius Biographies

Jean-Jacques Rousseau:


 Jean-Jacques Rousseau | Philosopher

 Jean Jacques Rousseau Association

Jean Jacques Rousseau [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]

 Jean-Jacques Rousseau

 Jean-Jacques Rousseau - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Jean Jacques Rousseau

 Jean-Jaques Rousseau and informal education

 Jean-Jacques Rousseau

The Period of the Enlightenment in France:
Jean Jacques Rousseau

 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques: The Social Contract and  Rousseau: Social Contract: Primary sources

 Jean Jacques Rousseau Association

 Rousseau Snapshot

 Jean Jacques Rousseau, 1712-1778

 Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-78).

 Rousseau, Jean Jacques. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001

 Rousseau: On the Origin of Inequality :  Primary source

 Jean-Jacques Rousseau

 Rousseau, Jean Jacques on

 Jean Jacques Rousseau Quotes - The Quotations Page

 Jean Jacques Rousseau-  Great Rousseau Site, but you will need to translate it into English

 Translated version of :  Great link site.

Immanuel Kant:


 Island of Freedom - Immanuel Kant

 Immanuel Kant -- Metaphysics [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]

 Immanuel Kant (1724-1804).

 CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Philosophy of Immanuel Kant

 Immanuel Kant - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)

 Kant, Immanuel. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001

 Immanuel Kant Quotes - The Quotations Page

 Immanuel Kant

 Modern History Sourcebook: Kant on Enlightenment, 1784 :  Primary source.

 Kant, Immanuel (1724-1804) : Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy Online

Adam Smith:

Adam Smith | Economist and Philosopher

Adam Smith (1723-1790).

 Adam Smith - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 From Revolution to Reconstruction: Biographies: Adam Smith

 Adam Smith, Biography: The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics: Library of Economics and Liberty

Smith, Adam. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001

 Adam Smith on Justice in Taxation

 Modern History Sourcebook: Adam Smith: The Wealth of Nations, 1776 ... :  Primary source.

 Adam Smith [Virtual Economy]

 Adam Smith: The Division of Labor

 Adam Smith and  Adam Smith's Laissez-Faire Policies

Baruch Spinoza:

MODERN PHILOSOPHY: The Philosophy of Rationalism  : Scroll down a little.


 Baruch Spinoza


David Hume:

 Hume home page

 Hume Archives

 ILTweb: Study Place: David Hume

 Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion and The Natural History of Religion

 Treatise of Human Nature, Book I

 David Hume

 Squashed Hume


Edward Gibbon:

Edward Gibbon

 The Edward Gibbon Page

 Edward Gibbon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Medieval Sourcebook: Gibbon: The Fall of the Roman Empire : Primary source

 Biographies: The Historians: Edward Gibbon (1737-94).

 Gibbon, Edward. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001

 Gibbon, Edward on

 Gibbon, Edward -- Encyclopædia Britannica

Cesare Beccaria:

Cesare Beccaria:

 Cesare Beccaria [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]

 Cesare Beccaria

 Cesare Beccaria: Of Crimes and Punishments : Primary source.

 Beccaria, Cesare -- Encyclopædia Britannica

Cesare Beccaria, Famous Quotation/Quote

 WHKMLA : Enlightenment : Cesare Beccaria

 Cesare Beccaria

 Cesare Beccaria

Gotthold Lessing:

Thomas Paine:

 Thomas Paine

 From Revolution to Reconstruction: Biographies: Thomas Paine

 Thomas Paine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Thomas Paine Page

 The LibertyOnline Thomas Paine Library

 Paine, Thomas. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001

 BBC - History - Thomas Paine: Citizen of the World

 Thomas Paine National Historical Association

 Online Thomas Paine Library

 Modern History Sourcebook: Thomas Paine (1737-1809): Common Sense ... and Thomas Paine, Common Sense : Primary sources

 Thomas Paine, 1737-1809

Wired 3.05: The Age of Paine

 Thomas Paine: A Who2 Profile

Thomas Paine

 The Thomas Paine Internet Archive

 Thomas Paine's Influence on the American Revolution

 The American Revolution (Thomas Paine)

 Thomas Paine Quotes - The Quotations Page

 Great Thinkers: Thomas Paine

 Paine, Thomas -- Encyclopædia Britannica

 Thomas Paine and The Age of Reason

Thomas Jefferson:

 Biography of Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson Online

 Thomas Jefferson Online - Enlightenment :  Him specifically on the Enlightenment.

 The Thomas Jefferson Papers - (American Memory from the Library of ... :  27,000 primarysources

 Thomas Jefferson on Politics & Government: Front Page :  His complete political philosophy.

 Thomas Jefferson Memorial Home Page

 Thomas Jefferson - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 From Revolution to Reconstruction: Presidents: Thomas Jefferson ...

 Thomas Jefferson Quotes - The Quotations Page

 The Avalon Project : The Papers of Thomas Jefferson

 Jefferson on Politics & Government: Contents

 Thomas Jefferson

 Thomas Jefferson | Third President of the United States

 Colonial Hall: Biography of Thomas Jefferson, Page 1

 The Writings of Thomas Jefferson : Primary sources.

 The Thomas Jefferson Heritage Society

 Thomas Jefferson: Father of Invention

 Thomas Jefferson - Autobiography :  Primary source


Denis Diderot:

Denis Diderot

Denis Diderot [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]

Denis Diderot

Denis Diderot

Denis Diderot -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia

Denis Diderot Biography

Literary Encyclopedia Denis Diderot

DIDEROT, Denis (1713-84)

Encyclopedia of Diderot & d'Alembert - Collaborative Translation Project


Malaspina Great Books - Denis Diderot (1713)

Denis Diderot and Jean Le Rond d'Alembert

Denis Diderot -

Diderot, Denis. The Columbia Encyclopedia

British Humanist Associatio-Denis Diderot

Denis Diderot- A Who2 Profile

Diderot - MSN Encarta

Denis Diderot —

Denis Diderot - LoveToKnow 1911

Denis Diderot Biography


Denis Diderot, French writer and philosopher (1713-84)