MODERN WORLD HISTORY: Chapter 6 Notes Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment
Items in boldface are from lecture only.
3 elements of scientific thought in the Middle Ages: Magic, mysticism, and ancient writings
- Mysticism: doctrine of immediate spiritual intuition of truths from extraordinary means.
* Something you can't easily explain - you just know it.
basis for scholars’ ideas: Theories proposed almost 1,000 years earlier by ancient Greek philosophers.
3 great ancient thinkers: Aristotle, Ptolemy, and Galen
Geocentric universe: The belief that the Earth was the center of the universe and all the planets revolved around it.
- Catholic Church doctrine regarding the universe: God created the universe to serve people, so the people's home (Earth) had
to be at the center of the universe.
2 breakthroughs for Western thought: New technology combined with innovative approaches to seeking knowledge.
Nicolaus Copernicus: Polish astronomer who believe that the earth was round and that it rotated on its axis as it revolved around the sun.
- University of Krakow: Where Copernicus started his scientific career in 1492. The same year Columbus sailed to the New World.
- how he was like Columbus: He began questioning age-old beliefs, and superstitions in a time when few people dared to question anything. Through
his research he became sure that the existing ideas on the universe were wrong. He devised the heliocentric theory….
even though he knew he was going against Church teachings.
- Heliocentric Theory: Ancient and medieval belief that our universe was one in which the planets revolve around the Sun.
* 3 Parts of theory:
1.) Earth is round.
2.) The earth spins on an axis.
3.) The Earth revolves around the sun.
- Why were his ideas considered dangerous? Disputing or questioning the Church’s views could mean that you would have to face the Catholic Church…
or the Inquisition.
* 3 ways the Catholic Church dealt with heretics: Persecution, excommunication, or burning at the stake.
- publication of his ideas: He kept his research private without publication during his lifetime (30 years of work). His friends, who realized just
how important his ideas were, helped him publish his findings just before his death. That way the Church would not be able
to persecute him.
Johannes Kepler: German astronomer who used mathematical formulas to prove that although the sun stays in place, the planets move in oval paths. He also
found that planets do not always travel at the same speed, but move faster as they approach the sun and slower as they move away from it.
- reversal on the Copernican Theory: He believed that the planets revolved around the sun in ellipses (.) not circles
- hypotheses: a solution proposed to explain a set of facts, which can be tested.
- 2 Copernican hypotheses he believed:
- reason Copernicus could not prove his theories: The mathematics necessary to prove his theories was available at this time
- 3 contributions:
1.) He proved the sun stayed in its place and the planets move in ellipses, not circles around the sun.
2.) Planets do not always travel at the same speed.
3.) The planets move faster as they approach the sun, and slower as they move away from it
* ellipses: an oval, not round, closed curve.
- reason he did not fear the Catholic Church: He was a Protestant- he didn't care what the Catholic Church thought?
Galileo Galilei: Italian mathematician and astronomer who is best known for his theories about the nature of motion. He is known as the “father of the scientific method.” He built his own telescope in 1609, published his ideas in 1632, and was called to stand trial before the Church for publishing ideas that were contrary to the Church’s stand. Under the threat of excommunication and death, he recanted many of his ideas.
- “Father of the Scientific Method”: Galileo's "nickname". He came up with the 1st step: observation
- problem with the Catholic Church: He was Catholic so he faced great opposition from Church leaders.
- 1609: Galileo built his own telescope to observe the night skies.
* his telescope: It was major improvement of Hans Lippershey's
- 4 discoveries:
1.) Discovered moons circling planet which convinced him that..
2.) The Copernican theory about the earth revolving around the sun was correct.
3.) Moons revolved around Jupiter, not all heavenly bodies revolve around the Earth.
4.) It was possible some (or all) planets did revolve around the sun.
- 1632: He published his ideas in Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems - Ptolemaic and Copernican. This book was approved by
Catholic Church censors, but due to Jesuit research, now they had changed their mind. Now they felt that theses ideas would harm Catholic
beliefs. (He had been warned 16 years earlier not to teach Copernican ideas since they contradicted the Church's position on the universe.
- action of the Catholic Church: The Church decided to prosecute Galileo for ignoring the previous banning of the teaching of the Copernican theory.
- Pope Urban VIII: Demanded that Galileo to stand trial in Rome for heresy.
* his threats: Torture and death
- recant: (to take back) Galileo was forced to recant may of his statements and publicly state that he had gone too far and was wrong.
- after the trial: Galileo continued his work. As he experimented with the motion of objects on Earth, he helped to establish the universal laws of physics.
- law of inertia: An object remains at rest or in a straight-line motion unless acted upon by an external force.
- pendulum: He helped to advance the application as a time controller in clocks.
Francis Bacon: an English philosopher who claimed that ideas based solely on tradition or unproven facts should be disregarded completely. He helped
develop what is now the scientific method.
- truth: resulted only from a thorough investigation of evidence.
- scientific method: The way we find scientific truth.
* 4 steps:
1.) a careful observation of facts
2.) find a hypothesis to explain the observations
3.) experiment to test the hypothesis under all possible conditions and in every way
4.) find the conclusion which either proves or disproves your theory.
* scientific truth: Is not assumed - it is deducted from observations, and a series of thorough experiments. It can be replicated.
Rene Descartes: French philosopher and mathematician who believed that truth must be reached through reason. The inventor of analytic geometry, he
saw mathematics as the perfect model for clear and certain knowledge. In 1637, he published, Discourse on Method, to explain his philosophy.
He coined the phrase, “I think, therefore I am.”
- belief: Truth must be reached through reason
- invention: Analytical Geometry
- his vision of mathematics: The perfect model for clear and certain knowledge
- Discourse on Method: his book to explain his philosophy.
* 1637: Published it Discourse on Method
* topic: His philosophy on mathematics.. and other things.
* “ I think, therefore I am.”: Descartes’ quotation on what he believed was the one un-shakable and self-evident truth. He began his search
for knowledge by doubting everything except for his very existence.
+ meaning: He began his search for knowledge by doubting everything except for his very existence. That was the only thing he was
sure was “true.”
Isaac Newton: English scientist and mathematician who published his theories on gravity and scientific concepts. He also developed calculus to prove his
theories, and is considered one of the most influential figures in modern science.
- quote (in text): “Asking the correct question is half the problem. Once the question if formulated there remains to be found only proof…”
* meaning: Have to be on the right track to find the truth of
- “If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.”: A well-known
Newton response when asked the question, “How did you invent all of these things?”
* meaning: He just built upon what other scientists had done before him. He felt that they were the real heroes. He felt he
just took their ideas a step farther. He felt he could not have accomplished what he did if it were not for the people
who came before him.
- Cambridge University: He was a below average student – a real loner. He didn’t feel like he
belonged there and hated any subject that wasn’t math. He actually flunked out
and went home to his family’s dairy farm, but one of his professors recognized his
mathematical genius and tutored him on advanced math. This convinced him to
stick with college even though he would have to pass the general education
requirements he despised.
- 1665: A plague (The Great Plague of London – like the Black Death… but not as deadly) outbreak closed the university and forced him to return to
his family farm
- Legend of Newton’s apple: While sitting under in his garden, Newton watched an apple fall to the ground. The apple’s fall led him to the idea of
gravity – obviously some force had to be pulling things to the earth.
* gravity: Gravity is a force of attraction between all matter. It is the weakest known force in nature, but it still manages to hold galaxies
and the solar system together.
- 1687: He published his theories about gravity and other scientific concepts in his book.
* Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy: In it he offered a new understanding of Copernicus, Galileo, & Kepler. It also stated
his universal theory of gravitation, explaining why the planets move as they do.
+ Principia: the other name for his book... the more common name.
+ universal theory of gravitation: The force of gravity not only prevents objects from flying off the revolving Earth, but it also holds
the entire solar system together by keeping the sun and the planets in proper orbit.
+ calculus: A system of mathematics (created by Newton to prove his theory) that calculates changing forces or quantity.
- effect: Newton’s work greatly influenced the thinking of his own age and all later scientific
thought. It suggested that precise mathematical formulas could be used to describe
an orderly world and universe.
CONNECTIONS – SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Effervescent waters: Scientists in Europe and the U.S. attempted to reproduce these effervescent waters from bubbling springs scattered throughout Europe. Mineral water found in natural springs. Bathing in natural springs had long been considered a healthy thing to do, and mineral water was said to have curative powers. Scientists soon discovered that gas carbon dioxide was behind the bubbles in natural mineral water.
1775: The French chemist named Antoine Lavoisier identified the substance as carbon dioxide.
Antoine Lavoisier: Chemist who discovered carbon dioxide.
Thomas Henry: English chemist described how to make artificial carbonated waters commercially
- discovery: artificial carbonated waters
** The first marketed soft drinks (non-carbonated) appeared in the 1600s. They were made from water and lemon juice sweetened with
honey – lemonade.
- 4 places manufactured: London, Paris, Dublin, and Geneva
The drinking of either natural or artificial mineral water was considered a healthy practice. American pharmacists, who were selling most of the mineral waters, started to add medicinal and other flavorful herbs to the unflavored beverages.
“soft drinks”: beverages created in the U.S. and originally sold in drugstores. In 1798, the term "soda water" first coined.
- original purpose: Syrupy tonics for medicinal purposes.
1800’s: When it became popular to combine those tonics with carbonated water (and sugar).
- bottled colas: appeared on the market in the late 1800s.
carbonation as a preservative: They found out that it prevents spoilage (by accident).
Jacob Schweppe: Jeweler in Geneva, marketed artificially carbonated water in 1794. Later he started a carbonated beverage business in London.
John Pemberton: Atlanta pharmacist, who became the inventor of Coca Cola in May, 1886.
TRIVIA: Pemberton concocted the Coca Cola formula in a three legged brass kettle in his backyard. The name was a suggestion given by John Pemberton's bookkeeper Frank Robinson. Being a bookkeeper, Frank Robinson also had excellent penmanship. It was he who first scripted "Coca Cola" into the flowing letters which has become the famous logo of today. The soft drink was first sold to the public at the soda fountain in Jacob's Pharmacy in Atlanta on May 8, 1886. About nine servings of the soft drink were sold each day. Sales for that first year added up to a total of about $50. The funny thing was that it cost John Pemberton over $70 in expanses, so the first year of sales were a loss. Until 1905, the soft drink, marketed as a tonic, contained extracts of cocaine as well as the caffeine-rich kola nut. By the late 1890s, Coca-Cola was one of America's most popular fountain drinks.
Claudius Galen: ancient Roman “doctor” who had written most of the information on anatomy.
Lived around 500 A.D.
- reason for no autopsies: Roman law forbade cutting into a human body… dead or alive.
- way he formulated his ideas on human anatomy: By dissection dogs and apes.
- 3 anatomical discoveries:
1.) Believed the existence of blood with in the arteries
2.) Believed human beings have 13 pairs of ribs (we have 12)
3.) Believed the liver digested the food and processed it into the blood
* his ideas that were wrong: #2 and 3 above.
French lawmakers in the 1500’s: Also considered dissecting human bodies wrong, hence it was illegal. Christianity taught that cutting into a human body was
a desecration of something God had made.
Andreas Vesalius: Young medical student in Paris (the only place you could study medicine) who wanted to study human anatomy based on HUMANS.
- how he proved Galen wrong: He made it clear that because Galen’s views were based on dissected dogs and apes, he beliefs about human
anatomy couldn’t be accepted as truth. By dissecting human bodies, Vesalius made ground-breaking discoveries in
- use of resurrections: Grave robbers, who paid big money to rob graves soon after a funeral. They brought the bodies to Vesalius and he dissected
they… and sometimes had them returned to the grave.
- 1543: He published his work in The Structure of the Human Body
* The Structure of the Human Body: the published findings of Vesalius’ discoveries in human anatomy.
^Use: Became the ONLY anatomy textbook for the next 170 years.
William Harvey: English physician who discovered that blood circulates throughout the body, and disproved many of Galen's theories. His work astonished
the world who had been basing their ideas on human anatomy and physiology on the work of Galen.
Robert Hooke: English scientist who discovered the cell through his invention of the microscope. He called them "cells" because they reminded him of
Robert Boyle: scientist who was primarily responsible for establishing chemistry as a pure science. He also defined an element as a material that cannot
by broken down into simpler parts by chemical means.
- alchemy: The unscientific chemistry of the day. Mostly it was a bunch of junk.
* alchemists: People who practiced alchemy.
+ goal of: Transmute base metals into precious metals…didn't work.
- 4 elements of matter: Earth, fire, water, and air
- The Skeptical Chymist (1661): Boyle's book that criticized alchemists and attacked the 4 elements nature theory.
* 2 contributions:
1.) Proved air couldn’t be a basic element because it was a mixture of several gases.
2.) He also defined an element as a material that can’t be broken down into simpler parts by chemical means.
Joseph Priestley: discovered oxygen, studied the properties of carbon dioxide, and invented carbonated drinks.
- discovery: Existence of oxygen
- carbon dioxide: His study of it resulted in his invention of carbonated drinks.
- quote: “Every year of the last twenty or thirty has been of more importance to science…than any ten in the preceding century.”
* meaning: They were advancing by leaps and bounds - making discoveries super fast.
Antoine Lavoisier: discovered carbon dioxide, and the nature of combustion, which results from the chemical union of a flammable material with oxygen.
- 2 discoveries:
1.) Materials don’t give off phlogiston when burned, but they consume oxygen.
2.) He discovered the nature of combustion, which results from the chemical union of a flammable material with oxygen.
- encounter with the guillotine: Lavoisier was a friend of Dr. Josef Guillotin the inventor of the guillotine, and he help Guillotin
devise the execution device because they thought it was a more "humane" way of killing criminals.
Later in life in addition to being a scientist, Lavoisier was a tax collector (one of the most hated
professions), he himself fell victim to the guillotine during the French Revolution.
How's that for ironic??
* quote about his death: When they were executing Lavoisier, a mathematician in the crowd said, “It required only a moment to
sever his head and probably 100 years will not suffice to produce another like it.”
Obviously, he knew of the genius of Lavoisier.
Marie Lavoisier: learned Latin and English so she could translate scientific essays and books for her husband, condensed numerous articles so her husband could be informed on a number of scientific subjects. (In short, he could not have made the discoveries he did without her help.)
- 3 contributions:
1.) Learned English and Latin so she could translate scientific essays and books for
2.) She read numerous articles and condensed them so that he could be informed on
many scientific subjects.
3.) Mme. Lavoisier also made illustrations for her husband’s writing.
Importance of the application of scientific viewpoint: European philosophers in the 1700’s began to apply the scientific method to all human ideas and
practices. Science would profoundly alter humanity’s view of the world.
3 effects of the change in scientific thought had on thinking in other fields: Thinkers began to
use reasoned analysis to scrutinize political theory, legal practice, and religious beliefs.
3 areas of revolutionary scientific discoveries: human anatomy, nature, and the universe
Effects of the monarchs: Monarchs helped the new sciences by supporting scientific academies,
observatories, and museums.
- Charles II: English king who established the Royal Society of London in 1662.
* Royal Society of London: Scientific society designed to share information with others
in the field.
+ Famous members: Isaac Newton and Robert Boyle
- Louis XIV: King of France who supported the founding of the French Academy of Science.
* French Academy of Science: French equivalent of the Royal Society of London.
2 purposes of societies:
1.) Provided financial support to scientists
2.) Published scientific books and journals
Advances in science that led to the belief: Led philosophers and other thinkers to believe that if systematic laws governed the workings of nature and the universe, then political, economic, and social relationships could be understood by applying reason.
Natural law: a universal truth or principle that 17th century thinkers believed could only be found through
English Civil War:
- 2 sides: Between Absolutists (people who wanted absolute monarchs ruling) and people
who thought people should have the right to govern themselves.
2 English philosophers: Thomas Hobbes and John Locke who dealt with theories on government
and natural law.
Philosophy: Greek for "love of wisdom"
- Philosophers: A thinker.
9 types of Philosophy:
- Ontology: Philosophic science on the nature of being.
- Epistemology: Philosophic science dealing with the problem of knowledge.
- Psychology: Study of the brain and mental processes; ability to see rationally.
- Theodicy: Philosophic science of God, first cause, our creator, natural theory.
- Logic: Philosophic science of correct thinking.
- Ethics: Philosophic science of dealing of human acts (right and wrong), moral philosophy.
- Politics: Philosophy of government, how should man rule himself.
-Axiology: Philosophic science that studies the general nature of value.
-Aesthetics: Philosophic science that studies art, beauty, and artistic value
Thomas Hobbes: English philosopher who used the idea of natural law in politics to argue that monarchy was the best form of government.
1.) Violence and disorder come naturally to humans and without an absolute government,
chaos would occur.
2.) People should form a contract or agreement to give up their freedom and live obediently
under a ruler.
3.) People would be ruled by a monarch who would protect them by keeping their world
peaceful and orderly.
4.) He also believed that people generally do not have the right to rebel against their government,
no matter ho unjust it might be.
* Leviathan: Hobbes' book, published in 1651, about a state in which people lived in a state
of anarchy - without a government. It showed how “nasty, brutish, and short” life
would be in such a world.
John Locke: English philosopher whose ideas on natural law were totally opposite of Hobbes - and many in his time. He believed in the idea of the social contract - a deal between the people and the ruler on how they would be ruled. His ideas were tremendously influential on early American politics.
- basis of theories: On the fact that a government was based on the social contract to establish
- 6 ideas:
1.) Government was based on a contract and that it was necessary to establish order.
2.) People in a state of nature are reasonable and moral individuals.
3.) Humans have natural rights to life, liberty, and property
4.) People have the right to break the contract if their government fails to uphold their
5.) If people employed reason, they would arrive at a cooperative and workable form
6.) The idea of Empiricism
* Empiricism: all knowledge is obtained through observation and experience.
* tabula rasa: All people were born tabula rasa-a blank tablet-and our
experiences etch knowledge onto our brains.
+ “Experience is the best teacher.”: It is from John Locke’s idea of tabula
rasa that we get this modern saying.
* 3 natural rights: Life, liberty, and property
* social contract: People make a contract with government to protect their natural
rights. If the government fails to uphold their rights, the people can
break the contract.
- Two Treatises of Government: Locke's ideas on government. It was published in 1690. Caused
a huge outcry since it was considered to be extremely radical.
* area of influence: Tremendously influential in Europe and the American colonies.
American use of ideas of the British philosophers as a justification for revolution: We used these ideas
to justify our independence from Great Britain and to create a new form of government.
Thomas Jefferson: One of the Founding Fathers; writer of the Declaration of Independence. He was
a great admirer of John Locke's ideas.
- Declaration of Independence: Jefferson used many of Locke's ideas about the social contract
between government and the people a basis for much of the Declaration of Independence.
2 major changes in the practice of law:
1.) Incorporating scientific or reasoned thought in applying the law helped to end the unjust
2.) Lawmakers placed less value on hearsay and on confessions made under torture in
determining the guilt or innocence of suspected criminals.
International law: The law that binds all countries.
Hugo Grotius: Dutch jurist (fancy word for lawyer/judge)
1.) Called our international code based on natural law.
2.) He believed that one body of rules could reduce the dealings of governments to a
system of reason of order
William Penn: American who advocated an assembly of nations committed to world peace. (He also was
the founder of the Quaker colony of Pennsylvania.)
- Quaker religion: A protestant religion based on simplicity. They left England to flee
religious persecution. They came to America as colonists. They are also
known as the Society of Friends.
* 2 things they are opposed to: War and taking any kind of oath
- colony: They established a Quaker colony in Pennsylvania.
- pacifism: opposition to war or violence as a way to settle disputes.
- 2 ideas:
1.) Advocated pacifism.
2.) He advocated an assembly of nations committed to world peace -- (Took us until after
World War I to come up with the United Nations.)
Application of reason to scientific belief: People began to try to apply reason to religious belief. Sometimes this is difficult to do because many things in religion must be accepted on faith. This is the time period when we began to see the shift in intellectual thought. Some people believed that faith and science were not compatible.... leads to the separation of church and state.
-2 social classes who did it: The upper and middle classes could turn away from traditional
religious views and create a more secular society.
- secular: Outside the religious realm; worldly.
Deism: Religious philosophy of the 1700’s based on reason and the idea of natural law that swept through
Europe and America.
- 5 ideas:
1.) They believed in a God.
2.) Denounced organized religion.
3.) Said organized religions exploited people’s ignorance and superstitions.
4.) Intended to construct a simple and more natural religion based on reason and natural law.
5.) Asserted the rightness of humanity’s place in an orderly universe.
** Deism was an attempt to mesh religion and science.
belief of European thinkers: Their scientific approach helped illuminate and clarify both the natural world and the study of human behavior.
Age of Reason: time period from 1687 to about 1789 (from Newton’s gravitational theory to the French Revolution) when many great thinkers examined laws, constitutions, kings, religions and the arts to see whether they could be squared with natural law.
Age of Enlightenment: The time period that emphasized rationalism, intellectual freedom, and freedom from prejudice and superstition in social and political activity; the intellectual movement of the Age of Reason.
- dates: Late 1600’s through the 1700’s
- 8 characteristics:
1.) Men and women of The Enlightenment studied the world as though they were looking
at it for the first time.
2.) They defined the world using science as their base.
3.) Natural scientists analyzed and classified thousands of animals, insects, and plants.
4.) Geologists drew maps of the Earth’s surface.
5.) Astronomers continued to make discoveries about the universe.
6.) Enlightenment thinkers perceived the universe as a machine governed by fixed laws.
7.) They saw God as a master mechanic of the universe- the builder of a machine who
provides laws and then allowed it to run on its own.
8.) Progress - The idea that the world and its people could be improved.
Jean Le Rond d’ Alembert: French mathematician who claimed the new method of thinking and the enthusiasm that accompanied it had…
- quote: “…brought about a lively formation of mines, spreading through nature in all directions
like a river which as burst at its dams.”
* meaning: Nothing is holding society back from progress.
2 factors that helped Enlightenment ideas spread:
1.) Through the writings of the philosophers.
2.) Through the discussions in the salons.
- 6 characteristics:
1.) They believed in Locke’s political philosophy and Newton’s scientific theories.
2.) They disapproved of superstitions.
3.) They disapproved of religious opposition to new scientific advances.
4.) They believed in freedom of speech.
5.) They believed everyone has the right to liberty.
* liberty: freedom
6.) It was their books & essays that helped to spread & popularize ideas and beliefs of
Paris: The most active center of idea exchange.
Salons: a gathering where Enlightenment intellectuals met for conversation in France.
- held where: mostly in wealth people's homes.
- 4 types of people who participated: Writers, artists, educated people, and the nobility
- what they did: Discussed the philosophy of the day and engaged in contests to see who had
the sharpest wit (brain teasers and humorous stories).
- who ran these: Wealthy and influential women.
Madame de Pompadour: wealthy French woman who ran a celebrated salon during the Enlightenment. Her intelligence and courtly charm won her the admiration of many philosophers.
- her salon: Was perhaps the most celebrated. Everyone wanted to be invited.
- relationship with Louis XV: She was King XV's mistress between 1745 and 1750, and remained
powerful as the King's confidante until her death in 1764.
- date: published in 1751
- volumes: 28
- contents: Everything then known about the sciences, technology, and history
- Denis Diderot: Frenchman who devoted most of his life to editing the Encyclopedie, for which
he later was imprisoned by the Church. He hated the Catholic Church. He
pioneered in modern art criticism. Diderot's vast correspondence forms a
brilliant picture of the period. His later years, until he came to enjoy the
patronage of Catherine II of Russia, were filled with financial difficulties.
* devotion to project: He devoted much of his life to it
- 2 things it did: Criticized the church and government and praised religious tolerance
- reaction of the Catholic Church: They banned it. Put it on the List of Prohibited Books.
- Diderot vs. the printer: The printer, fearing for his own life, omitted passages that might
offend the church leaders. When Diderot finds out about it he is
furious. He decided to secretly find someone else to publish it.
- punishment for Diderot and several other authors: Went to prison
- spread of ideas: The Encyclopedie was widely read and its ideas spread all through Europe. It
did exactly what the Church had tried to stop.
- Marie-Therese Rodet Geoffrin: Had a very important salon in France. She came from
poor background, lacking any formal education. She married a wealthy manufacturer
and moved up in society.
* connection to Encyclopedie: She secretly financed it.
Rococo: A style of art, especially architecture and decorative art, that originated in France in the 1700's and is marked by elaborate ornamentation -A very ornate style of speech or writing. This really demonstrated the middle class worship of beauty.
Charles-Louis de Secondat: The Baron de Montesquieu
- Baron de Montesquieu: French political philosopher who described his political views of separation
of governmental powers and the rights of the individual.
- Spirit of the Laws: two volume book that outlined Baron de Montesquieu’s ideas on government that
influenced the writing of constitutions in many countries, including the United States.
* date: 1748
* 3 ideas:
1.) Promoted the ideas of separating governmental powers.
2.) Believed that power should be divided equally among the three branches of government.
+ Legislative Branch of government: Makes the laws
+ Executive Branch of government: Enforces the laws
+ Judicial Branch of government: Interpreted the laws and judged when
they were violated.
3.) Strongly believed in the rights of individuals.
- influence of his work: It influenced the writing of the constitutions in many countries, including
Voltaire: French author and Deist who wrote poetry, plays, essays and books in a. He deeply admired the English ideal of religious liberty and relative freedom of the press, and is credited with a famous statement in defense of free speech.
- real name: Francois-Marie Arouet
- 4 things he wrote: Poetry, plays, essays, and books
- his style: was entertaining and often satirical
* Satire: A type of writing often mocking something- usually society or politics. It principally
ridicules its subject (individuals, organizations, states) often as an intended means
of provoking or preventing change
- Candide : His most celebrated satire. It challenged the notion that everything that happens
is for the best in “the best of all possible worlds.”
- Bastille: The notorious Paris prison where people were jailed by arbitrary decision of the King.
The Bastille was known for holding political prisoners whose writings had displeased the
royal government. Voltaire was sent there twice.
- cause for his 1st prison term: His satirical works that mocked the church and the royal court
- cause for his 2nd prison term: Claiming to be a nobleman.
- options after second offense: Further imprisonment or exile from France
* his choice: exile from France
* exile: banishment
- what he did while in England: Wrote books promoting Bacon’s philosophy and Newton’s science.
- 2 things he admired about England:
1.) The English ideal of religious liberty.
2.) England’s relative freedom of the press.
- “I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.” :
* meaning: Free speech, even speech we disagree with, should still be protected.
* meaning: With education easier to attain, there is no excuse for ignorance (lacking
knowledge) because everyone has the ability and opportunity to expand their
3 political rights asserted by the philosophes:
1.) The right of people to speak freely
2.) The right of the people to disagree with their rulers.
3.) To end the use of torture in prisons.
6 countries whose rulers were influenced by the philosophes: Prussia, Austria, Spain, Portugal,
Denmark, and Sweden
- 2 types of reforms they implemented: Humanitarian and social reforms to help their people
* Humanitarian: The rights people have as human beings
Enlightened despots: Absolute rulers who tried to implement some of the ideas of the political ideas
of the Enlightenment.
- 3 actions:
1.) Aimed to rule according to the principals of the Enlightenment while maintaining their
traditional royal powers.
2.) Worked hard to improve the performance of government in their countries.
3.) Promoted agriculture, industry, culture, and education.
Frederick II (the Great) of Prussia: the most famous of the enlightened despots who believed as king, he was, “first a servant of the state." His reforms included abolishing the use of torture except for murder and treason, established elementary schools, and promoted industry and agriculture.
- 4 characteristics: played the flute, composed music, wrote poems and essays, and earned a
reputation as a minor philosophe
- belief: As a king, he was the ‘first servant of the state’, so it was his job to truly serve by
making Prussia a better country to live in for all.
- friends: He was friends with Voltaire. He corresponded with Voltaire for many years and both
men greatly admired each other. It was Voltaire who first referred to him as
"Frederick the Great".
- his chief occupation (according to him): To fight ignorance and prejudice in his country,
enlighten his people, cultivate their manner and morals and make them as happy
as human can be; as happy as the means at his disposal permitted.
- 5 reforms:
1.) Abolished the use of torture except for murder and treason cases.
2.) Established elementary schools
3.) Promoted industry and agriculture
4.) To help peasants he gave them seeds to plant.
5.) Gave the peasants money to rebuild houses and barns.
Maria Theresa of Austria: Enlightened despot of Austria who introduced many humanitarian reforms
including the protection of serfs.
- 3 titles: Holy Roman Empress, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, and Archduchess of Austria
- as an Austrian ruler: She was of one of Austria’s most able rulers.
- attitude toward Enlightenment philosophy: As a Catholic, she disagreed with much of it, but
she did see a purpose in it… how it could help the people.
- 3 major reforms:
1.) Issued codes governing the relationship between peasants and their lords.
2.) Freed all peasants who lived on the land owned by the crown.
3.) Set up elementary schools supports by local and national funds.
Joseph II of Austria: Despot, influenced by Enlightenment ideas and the actions of his mother, implemented stronger reforms in Austria. He abolished serfdom, made land taxes equal for peasants and nobles, and gave freedom to the press. Unfortunately, most of his reforms failed.
- attitude toward Enlightenment philosophy: Admired and followed the ideas of it.. for the
- 1780: After the Empress’s death, he quickly implemented stronger reforms in the kingdom.
- 5 reforms:
1.) abolished serfdom
2.) made land taxes equal for nobles and peasants
3.) gave freedom to the press
4.) took property from the church.
5.) used the money to support hospitals
* result of his reforms: Most failed.
+ reason: The abrupt changes antagonized too many people
~ “Too much, too fast”: His reforms scared the nobility.
- rebellion of nobles: They rebelled and forced him to repeal many of his reforms.
- Leopold II: Revoked most of Joseph’s remaining laws in order to have control of Austria.
* reform left intact: Peasants remained free.
2 groups that resisted the efforts of the enlightened despots: Nobles and church leaders
- reason: Fear of losing too much political power to the common people
attitude and actions of some of the monarchs toward Enlightenment ideas: They backed away from
- reason: They realized their own positions would be threatened by giving too much power to
- resulting action: They struck down many political reforms that might have prevented the violent
political and social revolutions that were to come.
* effect: Many monarchs lost their power in the revolutions.
3 other areas that shared Enlightenment beliefs: art, music, and literature
Classicism: style and attitudes derived from the ideals of ancient Greece and Rome. A term that, when applied generally, means clearness, elegance, symmetry, and repose produced by attention to traditional forms. It is sometimes synonymous with excellence or artistic quality of high distinction. More precisely, the term refers to the admiration and imitation of Greek and Roman literature, art, and architecture. Because the principles of classicism were derived from the rules and practices of the ancients, the term came to mean the adherence to specific academic canons.
- whose ideas: Greek and Roman
* what they represented: Ultimate order and reason
- artists: Attempted to capture the refined and simplified spirit of the ancients.
- architects: Same as artists.
* 3 things they built: Palaces, opera houses, and museums
* forms: They used simple forms, such as squares and circles, rather than the elaborate
swirls of the baroque style.
- difference between baroque and classical styles: Baroque really detailed; fancy.
* Antonio Canova: Created works based on subjects from classical mythology
* Jean-Antoine Houdon: Carved sculptures of contemporary figures in poses that recall
ancient portraits of philosophers and political leaders.
* Jacques-Louis David: is famous for his huge, dramatic canvasses of Napoleon and other
historical figures. Early in his career he was a leader in the neoclassical movement; later
his subjects became more modern and political. David was also "the propaganda
minister of the French Revolution — a man who could turn an unruly mob, ready to kill
for a loaf of bread, into tearful patriots willing to die for the cause." Obviously, a man of
+ 3 characteristics of his artwork:
1.) His paintings show a concern with geometry and simplicity of form that
resulted in powerful, monumental images.
2.) He used clear and uncomplicated primary colors.
3.) His use of primary colors created contrasts and accented the clarity in
- Writers: Worked to achieve the classical ideal while maintaining their devotions to the concept
* style: Imitations of classical models
+ result: An ornate and affected style that was focused more on form than on
* French dramatists:
+ Moliere: Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, better known as Moličre was a French
theatre writer, director and actor, one of the masters of comic
* 3 English poets: John Dryden, Alexander Pope, and John Milton
+ Alexander Pope: One of the greatest poets of the Enlightenment (Now
recognized as the greatest poet of the 18th century.) He
reinforced the belief that everything, including human
conduct, is guided by a rational order. Moderation and
common sense became intellectual values as well as
standards of behavior.
^An Essay on Man: Examined the human condition vs. cosmos. -Quote: “Nature is a mighty maze, but not without a plan.”
+ John Milton: Opposed organized religion, challenged women’s roles
^ Paradise Lost: Epic poem that narrates the Christian story of the Fall
of Man: the temptation of Adam and Eve by Satan and their
expulsion from the Garden of Eden. It examines social, political,
sociological, role of women at the time.
^ Epic poetry: Hero’s tale
* 2 elements stresses: Classical elements such as balance and contrast
* elements refined: Expression of emotion.
* musical transition: Music went from merely supporting religious services and dance and
opera companies to being an ‘art’ in its own right.
+ concerts: For the first time in the modern era, people went to concerts for the
pleasure of listening to the music itself.
* piano: Evolving in the late 1600’s, allowed musicians to produce much greater ranges of
loudness and softness.
* violin: Was perfected at the same time, changing the sound of music
* 2 foundations laid by combining instruments: Chamber music and modern orchestra
* 4 great composers of the era: Johann Sebastian Bach, George Fredrich Handel,
Joseph Haydn, and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
+ Johann Sebastian Bach: one of the world's greatest musicians. One of his main
achievements was his remarkable development of polyphony (Music whose
texture is formed by the interweaving of several melodic lines. The lines
are independent but sound together harmonically.) Known to his
contemporaries mainly as an organist, his genius as a composer was not
fully recognized until the following century.
^ instrument of choice: organ
^ use for the majority of his music: Church music
^ as the epitome of Baroque music: His music had such precise rhythm
^ his Brandenburg Concertos: written in 1721, it mixed French and
Italian styles of organ music. Never had been done before.
+ George Friedrich Handel: was one of the greatest masters of baroque music,
most widely celebrated for his majestic oratorio Messiah.
^ instrument of choice: violin
^ Messiah: his greatest work
^ "Handel is the greatest composer that ever lived... I
would uncover my head and kneel down on his tomb."
* quote’s author: Mozart
+ Franz Joseph Haydn: one of the greatest masters of classical music. He started
composing music at age seven - with no musical training.
^ Father of Symphonies: Wrote the most.
* # of symphonies: 107
* # of string-quartets: 84
* # of piano sonatas: 58
* # of masses: 13
+ Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Considered to be one of the greatest musical genius
of all time. Died at age 36.
^ great works: The Magic Flute, The Marriage of Figaro, Requiem
^ # of works: Hundreds
^ student of: Haydn
^ considered to be: one of the greatest musical genius of all time
^ age at first composition: 4
^ age at first publication of his music:9
^ # of operas: 16
^ # of symphonies: 41
^ # of violin and piano concertos: 27 each
^ # of masses: 19
^ # of string quartets: 25
^ famous operas: The Magic Flute, The Marriage of Figaro, , Don Giovanni
* Requiem: Music for a funeral, dies before finished. One of his
students finally finished it for him.
+ Ludwig van Beethoven: German composer. He is universally recognized as one of
the greatest composers of the Western European music tradition.
Beethoven’s work crowned the classical period and also effectively
initiated the romantic era in music. He is one of the few artists who
genuinely may be considered revolutionary.
^ two musical styles he crossed: Classical and Romantic periods
^ as a perfectionist: had to be perfect for him.
^ use of improvisation: Had exceptional skills in improvisation.
^ disability: hearing loss
^ # of symphonies: 9
^ # of piano sonatas: 32
^ # of string quartets: 17
^ # of operas: 1 ("Fidelio")
^ # of piano concertos: 5
^ chamber music: a lot
Other viewpoint on the Enlightenment: Some saw the structure and ordered view of the universe as
overly rational and devoid of emotion and feeling. (all science, no
- William Blake: English poet and artist who exerted a great influence on English romanticism. He
is considered to be one of the most sensitive and most responsive to the realities
of the human condition poets of his time.
* quote and meaning: “God is a not a mathematical diagram!”
^ meaning: There is more than science in life.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Swiss-French philosopher, author, political theorist, and composer.
- 8 ideas/achievements:
1.) Criticized what he saw as his era's excessive reliance on reason
2.) Claimed people should rely more on instinct and emotion.
3.) Believed that humans are naturally good but civilization and institutions make them evil.
4.) Believed that science and the arts corrupted people.
5.) Believed that people could live humbler lives, close to nature.
6.) Believed that the power to rule belonged to the people.
7.) Thought that government should receive its power from the people.
8.) Believed that people have the right to rise up against their government and carry out
- life: He lived a rather unhappy life filled with illness and disappointment.
- contest: He entered an essay contest in 1750 answering the question, "Have science and the
arts done more to corrupt morals rather than improve them?" He won the contest.
- Discourse on the Effect of the Arts and Sciences on Morals: His contest winning essay where
he stated that science and art did corrupt humans.
- La Nouvelle Heloise: a popular novel by Rousseau that described the beauties of nature and the
pleasures of a simple country life.
* content: beauties of nature and the pleasures of a simple country life.
* influence it had on people: influenced people from every level of society to live humbler lives,
closer to nature.
+ Marie Antoinette: she had a small rural village constructed on the royal grounds
of Versailles, where she pretended to be a milkmaid.
Immanuel Kant: German philosopher who believed that reason could not explain the problems of
- 5 ideas:
1.) Believed that reason could not explain the problems of metaphysics.
2.) Believed in metaphysics - the aspects of philosophy that deal with universal, spiritual,
and eternal questions; such as the existence of God and the limits of knowledge.
3.) Wrote the Critique of Pure Reason where he explained his beliefs.
4.) Believed that human feelings about religion, beauty, and morality were real even though
science and reason could not explain them.
5.) Divided the world into two realms:
- the physical world where people attained knowledge through their senses, as well
as through reason.
- the second realm where faith, intuition and conviction were valid instruments for
- metaphysics: aspects of philosophy dealing with basic questions of existence and reality.
- The Critique of Pure Reason: Kant’s essay that asserted that human feelings about religion, beauty and
morality were real, even though science and reason could not explain them.
- 2 realms: (see # 5 above)
* example of problem with 2 realms (page 530): “The natural sciences, which belonged
to the first realm, could not provide a guide for the morality which rested in
the second realm.”
Count von Zinzendorf: German who established the Moravian Brethren.
- Moravian Brethren: Private Christian group established by Zinzendorf because they were
searching for a religion that was emotionally more satisfying than deism.
* idea: emphasized the emotional and mystical side of Christianity.
John Wesley: Englishman who created Methodism, which stressed the value of personal religious
- Methodism: the religious beliefs and practices developed by John Wesley. It is characterized
by concern with social welfare and public morals.
* idea: stressed the value of the personal religious experience.
* as a reaction: To the cold formality of the Church of England
Hasidism: beliefs and practices of a sect of Orthodox Jews who maintain that God's presence is in all of one's surroundings and that one should serve God in one's every deed and word. This is the Jewish reaction toward the emphasis on science and reason.
- ideas: Promoted mysticism and religious zeal- as opposed to an emphasis on external ritual.
- Israel Baal Shem Tov: A Jewish mystic and miracle worker.
- as a movement today: Many Hasidic Jews were killed in the Holocaust, but in the last 60
years they have begun to build up their numbers again.
* 2 centers: New York and Israel
Uniting factor for all religious movements: They rejected reason in favor an enthusiastic faith
Change in the arts: Classicism in the arts gave way to romanticism
Romanticism: artistic movement of the early 1800’s emphasizing individuality and emotion. A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. (It was also a cultural movement that celebrated emotion and the individual.)
Characteristics of Romanticism
Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution, the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism.
The basic aims of romanticism were:
- a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity;
- the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator;
- the development of nationalistic pride
- the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect.
- romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism.
Philosophically romanticism represents a shift from the objective to the subjective: Science claims to describe the objective world, the world understood from no particular viewpoint.
Example: Imagine three people looking at a landscape, one is a farmer, another a property developer and the third an artist. The farmer would see the potential for raising crops and livestock, the property developer the chance to build houses and the artist at the shades and subtleties of color and form. None of these individuals is seeing the landscape objectively; they are seeing it from a particular or subjective viewpoint.
The end of the Age of Enlightenment: As people questioned the philosophies of the Enlightenment, and developed new more individual-centers ideas of their own, people began to think and look out for themselves. No longer were they willing to be ruled by absolute monarchies.
Demands of the lower classes: more rights (and of course, lower taxes)
Age of Revolution: time period from 1687 to about 1789 (from Newton’s gravitational theory to the French Revolution) when many great thinkers examined laws, constitutions, kings, religions and the arts to see whether they could be squared with natural law.