MODERN WORLD HISTORY: Chapter 4 - The Atlantic World





 4-1: Spain Builds an Empire in the Americas


The voyages of Columbus prompt the Spanish to establish colonies in the Americas.


First Encounters



Ferdinand & Isabella: Entered Spain in the race for Asian riches by backing the expedition of an Italian navigator named Christopher Columbus.


Christopher Columbus: Italian navigator who had been asking monarchs to back a voyage for years.  Everyone had turned him down because of his idea that one                      could reach India/Asia by sailing west. 


                                    He was very intelligent, aggressive, deeply religious an exceptional navigator (especially by dead reckoning), highly curious, and could be

                                    very intolerant with people or ideas that didn’t match his.


            - 1492: He asks Ferdinand and Isabella once again for money to launch a voyage west.  Ferdinand was against it, but Isabella finally granted his request.

                        Most thought it would end in failure.


            - his estimated distance around the world: He lied – he told them it was about 700 leagues or 2200 nautical miles.  (Actually he knew he it was probably

                                                                           more, but didn’t want to tell people the real distance because they would never go on a voyage that long.) 

                                                                           By deceiving them, he got exactly what he wanted.


                                    * nautical mile:  1508 miles (6,076 feet)


            - fears of his crew:  After a month at sea, his crew was terrified and very near mutiny.


                                    * mutiny: attempting to overthrow the captain of the ship.


            - Columbus' reaction: He knows he’s in trouble.  If they mutiny, he not only loses his ship, and probably his life, but also his dream of the westward water

                                            route.  To him that dream is of the utmost importance.  So he showed them a log (captain’s journal) that vastly understated the

                                            distance they had already sailed from home. 


                                          They are somewhat relived, but still very agitated.  He asks them to give him 3 days to find land and if no land is found by then,

                                          they’ll turn back. He also promises the first man who sights land, 20,000 maravedis - a bunch of money back then. The average

                                          person would have never seen that much money in their lifetime!) 


                                         On October 12, 1492 they find land.


            - his idea: He was sure that he had discovered a water route to Asia.


            - Bahamas: Where Columbus first sees land.  NOT THE USA!  Columbus landed there thinking it was India, or islands west of India (West Indies). 

                              No one knows the site of the exact landfall.


            - "Indians":  what Columbus called the native islanders - “los indios - because he thought he landed off the coast of India.


            - Hispaniola: Present day Haiti and Dominican Republic.  Columbus spent three months sailing around the Caribbean.


            - San Salvador: island where the Santa Maria crashed on Christmas, 1492.  There he had to build a colony because there was no way he could take everyone

                                   back on the other two caravels.


                                        * La Navidad: what Columbus named the colony.


            - gold: Columbus, like other explorers, was interested in gold.  Finding none on San Salvador, he explored other islands, staking his claim to each one.


                        * quote: “It was my wish to bypass no island without taking possession."


            - titles granted to him: Admiral of the Ocean Sea, Viceroy and Governor of the Islands he discovered in the Indies.

                                                *** Plus he received a monetary payment of 10% of every thing found.


            - His 3 other tripsColumbus three more trips to the Caribbean area (all funded by Ferdinand and Isabella).  Spain was anxious to colonize the area.


                        * Columbus' second voyage: He commanded a fleet of 17 ships that carried over 1,000 soldiers, crewmen, and colonists.


                                    ^ date: 1493


            - colonies: lands controlled by a distant nation.  (Remember... a colony=free money)


            - Columbus' brothers: He set up colonies most which failed miserably because he put his brothers in charge of them – good brothers, but poor



            - 1506: Columbus died (actually in disgrace because he had not been successful in ruling the colonies he established.)  No one knows where his remains are…

                        lost because they have been dug up and moved so many times.


Other Explorers Take to the Seas


Pedro Alvares Cabral: Portuguese explorer who reached the shores of modern-day Brazil and claimed the land for his country-- after he regained control of the Asian

                                spice trade.


-1500: 13 ships were dispatched to Calicut led by Cabral, the Portuguese won a bloody trade war with Muslim merchants and defeated a large Arab fleet.


- his mission: To seize control of the Spice Trade.


Amerigo Vespucci: an Italian in the service of Portugal, who traveled along the eastern coast of South America. Upon his return to Europe, he claimed that the land

                            was not part of Asia, but a “new” world. In 1507, a German mapmaker named the new continent “America” in honor of Amerigo Vespucci.


Vasco Núñez de Balboa:  Portuguese explorer who marched through modern-day Panama and became the first European to gaze upon the Pacific Ocean, which

                                    he named the South Sea.


Ferdinand Magellan:  A Portuguese mercenary who, in 1519, set sell from Seville, Spain under the Spanish Flag to find a western route to Asia.  He had 234 men

                               (some criminals - given a special two year parole to go on the voyage... and get them OUT of Spain.) and five ships. 


- 5 ships: Two 130 tons each, two of 90 tons each and one of 60tons.             

1.) Trinidad: chief ship commanded by Magellan

                        2.) San Antonio: commanded by Juan de Cartagena

                        3.) Conception: commanded by Gaspar de Quesada,

                        4.) Victoria: commanded by Luis de Mendozs

                        5.) Santiago: commanded by Juan Serrano


            - Antonio Pigafetta: sailor (of Vicenza, Italy) who paid a large sum of money to accompany and assist the Portuguese captain Ferdinand Magellan and

                                           his Spanish crew on their trip around the world.  During the trip, Pigafetta collected numerous data about geography, the climate,

                                           the flora, the fauna, and the inhabitants of the places that the expedition visited; his meticulous notes were to serve as invaluable

                                           documents to future explorers and cartographers, mainly due to his inclusion of nautical and linguistic data.


                                        ** in other words... His accurate journal is WHY we even know about the trip.


            - occurrence that happened on the coast of Argentina:  The crews of three ships attempted to mutiny because Magellan had decided to halt the expedition

                                                                                              until spring…. And the fact that there were people on the crews that wanted to be in control of the

                                                                                              voyage and the “gold.”


                        * mutiny: attempting to over throw the captain of the ship


                        * Magellan's 3 actions:

                                    1.) Executed the captain (Quesada) who had instigated the mutiny, and marooned two others (Cartagena and a priest)                                   

                                    2.) Regained control of the fleet.

                                    3.) Resumed the expedition toward the tip of South America.


            - Straits of Magellan: the water passage immediately south of mainland South America. The strait is the biggest and most important natural passage

                                            between the Pacific and the Atlantic Ocean.


                        * 4 characteristics of: 373 miles long, strong current unpredictable gales, and a rocky coast.


                        * what happened to Magellan's ships there:  His five ships were separated.

1.)    The Santiago wrecked looking for the way into the strait. 

2.)   The San Antonio took off for Spain as soon as they started because the captain was scared by the looks of the place.

                                    3.) The remaining three ships spent almost a month inching through the treacherous waters, and finally entered the South Pacific.


            - Pacific Ocean: Named by Magellan for its calm appearance.


                        * Vasco Nunez de Balboa: had discovered and named the ocean, “South Sea”, six years earlier.


            - After four months of sailing they finally reached the Philippines.  Magellan had 150 crewmen left - most had died of starvation, dehydration and scurvy.


            - Scurvy: is a disease that results from insufficient intake of vitamin C.


                        * Symptoms: spots on the skin, muscle pain, spongy gums (which makes the teeth fall out), weakness, joint pain, and bleeding from the

                                            mucous membranes.  A person with the ailment looks pale, feels depressed, and eventually is partially immobilized.


                        Scurvy was at one time common among sailors whose ships were out to sea longer than perishable fruits and vegetables could be stored.  It

                        takes about three months of vitamin C deprivation to begin inducing the symptoms of scurvy. Untreated scurvy is always fatal, but since all

                        that is required for full recovery is the resumption of normal vitamin C intake, death by scurvy is rare in modern times.


            - in the Philippines: A friendly tribe of natives befriended them, and nursed them back to health. A skirmish erupts between two native tribes, and Magellan,

                                          wanted to help his newfound friends, gets himself killed in the fight.


                        * result:  The surviving crew escaped and sailed for Spain.


            - 1522:  After three years at sea, one ship with 18 men arrived in Seville, Spain.  They had accomplished the first circumnavigation.


            - circumnavigation: circling the globe.


            - value of voyage:  The spices that they brought back barely covered the cost of the voyage, but the expedition had a value far beyond money.


            - 4 things his voyage proved:

                        1. The world was round

                        2. It was much larger than believed to be.

                        3. The oceans of the world were connected.

                        4. The lands discovered by Columbus were not part of Asia.


Spanish Conquests in Mexico: Conquistadors


Spain: The Spanish were the first European settlers in the Americas.


            - 2 things they were looking for: Gold and silver


Conquistadors: the Spanish soldiers, explorers, and fortune hunters who took part in the conquest of the Americas in the 16th century.  Most of the conquistadores

                       cruelly mistreated the inhabitants of the regions they visited or conquered; killing, enslaving, raping and otherwise abusing them.  The name         

                       "Conquistador" is frequently used to mean any daring, ruthless adventurer.


            -“Conquistador oath”: “To serve god and his majesty to give light to those who were in darkness, and to grow rich as all men desire to do.”


                        ^AKA:  "God, glory and gold.


Hernando Cortes: Conquered Mexico for Spain (1519-1521) by killing the Aztec ruler.


            -1519:  he left Cuba for Mexico with about 600 men.


            - Aztecs: Group of natives in Mexico.


                        * Tenochtitlan: The Aztec capital.


                        * Montezuma II: The Aztec ruler.


                        * Ancient Aztec Prophecy: Montezuma thought the Spanish had come to fulfill a legendary prophecy - in which an ancient god - Quetzalcoatl - would

                                                               return.  Of course Cortez immediately began to impersonate Quetzalcoatl. Montezuma offered them gifts of gold.


                                    ^ Quetzalcoatl: an ancient god who the Aztecs believed would eventually return.


                        * Quote: Cortés admitted that he and his comrades had a “disease of the heart that only gold can cure.”


                        *slaughter of the Aztecs: late spring of 1520, some of Cortés’s men killed many Aztec warriors and chiefs while they were celebrating a

                                                             religious festival.  


                                        ^ June of 1520: the Aztecs rebelled against the Spanish intruders and drove out Cortés’s forces.


                                        ^ 1521:  Despite being greatly outnumbered, Cortés and his men conquered the Aztecs


                                        ^ Total killed: The Spanish slaughtered 50,000 Aztecs. 


                                        ^ 4 factors that played a key role in the victory:

                                                1.) The Spanish had the advantage of superior weaponry. Aztec arrows were no match for the Spaniards’ muskets and cannons.

                                                2.) Spanish had horses

                                                3.) Cortés was able to enlist the help of various native groups.


                                                            - Malinche: native female translator who helped Cortés learn that some natives resented the Aztecs.


                                                            - Aztec practice the other natives hated: human sacrifice


                                                4.) Spaniards brought disease with them to the Americas. Native Americans had never been exposed to these diseases. Thus,

                                                     they had developed no natural immunity - they died by the hundreds of thousands. 

                                                      * Disease killed more people than the Spaniards did.*


                                                                - 4 diseases: Measles, mumps, smallpox, and typhus


                                                                        * Typhus:  The disease is transmitted to humans by mites, lice and fleas. Symptoms include fever and red

                                                                                         spots over arms, back and chest. Typhus mainly killed people living in places where sanitary

                                                                                         conditions were very bad. It was also a common disease in prisons, and on ships.   Typhus can now

                                                                                         be successfully treated with antibiotics.


                                                            -     Way the natives got "even":  They gave the Spanish various sexually transmitted diseases.


                    * Montezuma II's demise:  Montezuma was brought out to be "released", but his own people threw stones at him and he later died of his wounds.


Pizarro Subdues the Inca


Francisco Pizarro: Another conquistador who marched a small force into South America, and conquered the Incan Empire by 1532.


            - 1529: invaded Peru.


            - Inca: the empire of Present day Peru


                        *Atahualpa: Incan ruler


            - at Cajamarca: Pizarro and his army of about 200 met with Atahualpa near the city.


                        * Atahualpa's force:  about 30,000.  (Several thousand mostly unarmed men came along for the meeting)


            - Pizarro's 6 actions

                        1.) The Spaniards waited in ambush, and then crushed the Incan force.

                        2.) Kidnapped Atahualpa

                        3.) Slaughtered his 2,000 body guards

                        4.)  Accepted a huge ransom in gold and silver. 


                                    *amount: 24 tons of gold and silver, the richest ransom in history)


                        5.) Killed Atahualpa

                                    * method: As he was about to be burned at the stake, the Spanish offered him a more merciful death by strangulation if he agreed to convert

                                                   to Christianity, which he did... then they strangled him


                        6.) Pizarro then marched on to Cuzco, and captured it without a struggle in 1533.

                                                * Cuzco: the Incan capital


Other conquistadors: conquered the Maya in Yucatan and Guatemala, and various other peoples in the Americas.


By mid-1500's: Spain had created an empire in the Americans.


            - Spanish Empire: included New Spain (Mexico and parts of Guatemala), as well as other lands in Central and South America and the Caribbean.


                        * size of Spain’s territory and population: 375,000 square miles with over 7 million inhabitants


Spain’s Pattern of Conquest


Reconquista of Spain: was the military reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula from the Muslims by Christian rulers.


            - dates: 718 to 1492


            - method: When conquering the Muslims, the Spanish lived among them and imposed their Spanish culture upon them.


                    ** Since that worked so well, they decided to use the same method in the Americas.


Peninsulares: The Spanish settlers to the Americas.


             - problem:  they were mostly men.


                        * result: relationships between Spanish settlers and native women were common.


                        * mestizo: a large—or mixed Spanish and Native America population.


Spanish oppression of natives:

            1.) exploited the land for its precious resources.

            2.) Spanish forced Native Americans to work within a system known as encomienda.


Encomienda:  a grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it.


            - 4 points:

                        1.) Under this system, natives farmed, ranched, or mined for Spanish landlords.

                        2.) These landlords had received the rights to the natives’ labor from Spanish authorities.

                        3.) The holders of encomiendas promised the Spanish rulers that they would act fairly and respect the workers.

                        4.) Many abused the natives and worked many laborers to death, especially inside dangerous mines.


The Portuguese in Brazil

          * In 1530s, Portuguese settle in Brazil, begin growing sugar

Growth of Spanish Power

        * Conquests in Americas bring great wealth to Spain

        * Spain enlarges its navy to protect ships carrying treasure


Brazil: colonized by Portugal.  Pedro Alvarez Cabral claimed this territory as he swung west across the Atlantic to India in 1500. 


- the rest of South America: Was claimed by Spain.


            - 1530s: Portuguese colonists began settling Brazil’s coastal region. Finding little gold or silver, the settlers began growing sugar. Clearing out huge swaths

                         of forest land, the Portuguese built giant sugar plantations.


            - sugar: The demand for sugar in Europe was great, and the colony soon enriched Portugal. In time, the colonists continued to push farther west into Brazil.

                         They settled even more land for the production of sugar.


- the rest of South America: Was claimed by Spain.


- 4 income producing crops of Brazil:

            1.) sugarcane

            2.) coffee

            3.) tobacco

            4.) cotton


- labor intensive crops: needed a great deal of work to earn a profit.


            - need for slavery: the local population didn’t supply enough labor so slaves were brought from Africa.


Conquistadors Push North


Spain’s American colonies: helped make it the richest, most powerful nation in the world during much of the 16th century.


6 points on Spanish expansion:

            1.) Ships filled with treasures from the Americas continually sailed into Spanish harbors.

            2.) This newfound wealth helped usher in a golden age of art and culture in Spain.

            3.) Throughout the 1500s, Spain also increased its military might.

            4.) To protect its treasure-filled ships, Spain built a powerful navy.

            5.) The Spanish also strengthened their other military forces, creating a skillful and determined army. For a century and a half, Spain’s army seldom lost

                 a battle.

            6.) Spain enlarged its American empire by settling in parts of what is now the United States.


Juan Ponce de León: Spanish explorer who landed on the coast of modern-day Florida and claimed it for Spain in 1513.  (He thought Florida was an island.)


            - 1493: he accompanied Christopher Columbus on his second voyage to the New World.


            - characteristics: He was typical of the conquistadors of his age, believing that the spread of Christianity was such a great gift to the natives that their

                                       losses of freedom and life were of little consequence.


            - 2 things he was looking for

                        1.) He was seeking a spiritual rebirth with new glory, honor, and personal enrichment, not a physical rebirth through the waters of a

                             "fountain of youth".

                        2.) He was searching for gold, slaves and lands to claim and govern for Spain, all of which he hoped to find at Bimini and other islands. 

                             (The Tainos had told the Spanish of a large, rich island to the north named Bimini.)


Francisco Vásquez de Coronado: led an expedition throughout much of present-day Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas.


            - dates: 1540–1541


            - mission:  He was searching for another wealthy empire to conquer.  Coronado found little gold amidst the dry deserts of the Southwest.


            - The Legend of the Seven Cities of Cibola:  Quivira and Cíbola are two of the fantastic Seven Cities of Gold existing only in a myth that originated

                                                                               around the year 1150 when the Moors conquered Mérida, Spain.


                            According to the legend, seven bishops fled the city, not only to save their own lives but also to prevent the Muslims from obtaining

                            sacred religious relics. Years later, a rumor circulated that in a far away land—a place unknown to the people of that time—the seven

                            bishops had founded the cities of Cíbola and Quivira.  The legend says that these cities grew very rich, mainly from gold and precious

                            stones. This idea fueled many expeditions in search of the mythical cities during the following centuries.


                            Eventually, the legend behind these cities grew to such an extent that no one spoke solely of Quivira and Cíbola, but instead of seven

                            magnificent cities made of gold, one for each of the seven bishops who had left Mérida.


            - Seven Cities of Cibola: There were numerous reports of people seeing golden cities, the smallest of which was larger than Mexico City.


                        * Coronado’s search:  Coronado left with a small group of explorers (154) from Culiacán, Mexico on April 22, 1540.   They went through the

                                                          state of Sonora and arrived in present day Arizona… and found nothing but a deserted pueblo village.  Obviously, it

                                                          must be farther, so the continued... until they were in Kansas.  Eventually he discovered that the guide’s stories

                                                          were lies and that there were in fact no treasures as had been described.  Coronado promptly executed the  guide.


            - Result:  As a result of numerous expeditions’ failures, the Spanish monarchy assigned mostly priests to explore and colonize the future United States.


Role of Religion:  Catholic priests had accompanied conquistadors from the very beginning of American colonization.


Conquistadors vs. priests:  The conquistadors had come in search of wealth. The priests who accompanied them had come in search of converts.


Pedro de Peralta: governor of Spain’s northern holdings, called New Mexico, led settlers to a tributary on the upper Rio Grande. They built a capital called

                          Santa Fe, or “Holy Faith.”


            - date: 1609–1610


            - 1620-30: a string of Christian missions arose among the Pueblo.


                        * Pueblo: the native inhabitants of the region.


                        * 3 things they set up: Scattered missions, forts, and small ranches dotted the lands of New Mexico.


                                    ^ as headquarters: These became the headquarters for advancing the Catholic religion.


Protests Against Mistreatment

        * Catholic priests protest mistreatment of Native Americans


4 actions of the missionary Catholic priests:

            1.) Spanish priests worked to spread Christianity in the Americas.

            2.) They also pushed for better treatment of Native Americans.

            3.) Priests spoke out against the cruel treatment of natives.

            4.) They criticized the harsh pattern of labor that emerged under the encomienda system.


Bartolome de Las Casas:  Dominican monk who was a scholar, historian and 16th century human rights advocate.  He criticized the harsh pattern of labor that

                                      emerged under the encomienda system.


                                                  ** He was one of the very few that actually spoke out against what was being done to the natives in the Americas.


            - quote: “There is nothing more detestable or more cruel, than the tyranny which the Spaniards use toward the Indians for the getting of pearl [riches].”


            - His book: A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies, published in 1552, gives a vivid description of the atrocities committed by the

                             conquistadors in the Americas – most particularly, in the Caribbean, Central America, and what is now modern Mexico – including many

                             events to which he was an eyewitness.


                        * influence: The book was widely read and widely translated.  The English version was used to stir up English feeling against the Spanish as

                                            a cruel race whom England ought to beware of, and whose colonies in the Americas would be better off in English hands.


            - Names given

                        1.) Father of anti-imperialism

                        2.) Father of anti-racism. 

                        3.) Defender of the Oppressed

                        4.) Symbol of justice and human rights in Latin America. 


African Slavery and Native Resistance


1542: The Spanish government abolished the encomienda system.


            - result:  Spain still needs people to work the land (for free).


            - de Las Casas suggests: using Africans. “The labor of one . . . [African]. . . [is] more valuable than that of four Indians,” he said. (He later changed his view

                                                 and denounced African slavery.)


            - Spain's solution: Slavery of both groups.


Opposition to the Spanish colonization:  Many opposed the methods used by Spain to colonize the Americas.


6 ways Spain treated the native peoples:

            1.) Forced the natives to work for them/enslaved them

            2.) Took their lands

            3.) Abused them physically, mentally, sexually, and emotionally

            4.) Destroyed their temples

            5.) Banned their religions

            6.) Gave them diseases, many which killed them


2 main groups leading resistance movements:

            1.) Spanish priests (like de Las Casas)

            2.) Native Americans


            - incidents of resistance:


                        * 1493 (November): Columbus encountered resistance in his attempt to conquer the present-day island of St. Croix. Before finally surrendering, the

                                                      inhabitants defended themselves by firing poison arrows.


                        * late 1600s: Natives in New Mexico fought Spanish rule.  They revolted because in converting the natives, Spanish priests and soldiers burned

                                           their sacred objects and prohibited native rituals.


Popé: a Pueblo ruler who led a well-organized rebellion against the Spanish.


            - 1680: The rebellion involved more than 8,000 warriors from villages all over New Mexico. The native fighters drove the Spanish back into New Spain.


1680-1692: The southwest region of the future United States once again belonged to its original inhabitants… until the Spanish regained control of the area.




4-2: European Nations Settle North America


Several European nations fight for control of North America, and England emerges victorious.


Other European Claims in North America


3 other European nations that get involved with exploration: England, France, and the Netherlands


Magellan’s voyage:  showed that ships could reach Asia by way of the Pacific Ocean.


            - Spain: Since Spain paid for Magellan's voyage, they claimed the route around the southern tip of South America.


                        * problem: Other European countries hoped to find an easier and more direct route to the Pacific.


                                    ^ What they needed: a northwest trade route through North America to Asia would be highly profitable.


Northwest Passage: a hypothetical sea route north and west around the American continents that would offer a safer sea route to the Orient than those

                               which lay exposed to possible Spanish or Portuguese attack.


            - main areas of attack: Cape Horn and the Cape of Good Hope. 


            - major problem: No one knew if it even existed.


            - Result/obstacles faced:  For over 300 years, explorers would brave the harsh climate and treacherous ice conditions of the North. Some men would lose

                                                  their lives due to starvation, scurvy, attack by Inuit or even their fellow crew in an attempt to find a way through the maze of

                                                  ice and islands.


            - Martin Frobisher: an English explorer was the first European to explore the eastern approaches of the passage.


                        * date: 1576–78


             - 3 countries that colonize instead:  Not finding the route, the French, English, and Dutch instead established colonies in North America.


            - route: The Northwest Passage did exist… well, sort of.  It is a route from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean through the Arctic archipelago

                         of Canada.


            - Roald Amundsen: the Norwegian explorer, who had sailed just in time to escape creditors seeking to stop the expedition, completed a three-year

                                          voyage in the converted 47-ton herring boat Gjøa.


                        * date: 1906


                        * Eagle, Alaska: At the end of this trip, he walked into the city of Eagle, Alaska, and sent a telegram announcing his success.


                        * problems with his route:

                                    1.) was not commercially practical

                                    2.) Takes additional time

                                    3.) Some of the waterways were extremely shallow.

                                    4.)  Temperature (It's really cold up there.)

                                    5.) Ice


The French Efforts


Giovanni da Verrazzano: an Italian in the service of France.


            - date: 1524


            - where and what discovered: he sailed to North America in search of a sea route to the Pacific. While he did not find the route, Verrazzano did discover

                                                        what is today New York harbor.


Jacques Cartier: reached a gulf off the eastern coast of Canada that led to a broad river. Cartier named it the St. Lawrence.


            - date: 1534


            - Discoveries: St. Lawrence River and Montreal


                        *  Mount Royal: He followed it inward until he reached a large island dominated by a mountain. He named the island Mont Real (Mount Royal), which

                                               later became known as Montreal.


Samuel de Champlain:  sailed up the St. Lawrence with about 32 colonists.


            - date: 1608


            - Discovery: They founded Quebec, which became the base of France’s colonial empire.


                        * New France: name for France’s colonial empire in North America


Jacques Marquette & Louis Joliet: Priest and trader who explore the Mississippi.


            - date: 1673


            - Discovery: explored the Great Lakes and the upper Mississippi River.



Sieur de La Salle: French explorer whose mission was to explore and establish fur-trade routes along the Mississippi River.


            - as the 1st: He was the first European to travel the length of the Mississippi River (1682).


            - AKA: René-Robert Cavelier


            - date: 1682


            - Discoveries:

                        1.) Explored the lower Mississippi and claimed the entire river valley for France. (Louisiana Territory)


                                    * named in honor of: He named it Louisiana in honor of the French king, Louis XIV.


                        2.) Explored Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake Erie, and Lake Ontario.

                        3.) He tried to start a settlement in the southern Mississippi River Valley, but the venture ended in disaster.



Size of New France' empire by the early 1700s: New France covered much of what is now the mid western United States and eastern Canada.


            - population:  Not a lot of people there.


                        * by 1760: 65,000


3 reasons for the lack of colonization by the French: A large number of French colonists had no desire to build towns or raise families including:

            1.) Catholic priests who sought to convert Native Americans.

            2.) Young, single men engaged in what had become New France’s main economic activity, the fur trade.

            3.) The French were less interested in occupying territories than they were in making  money off the land.


The English Arrive in North America


The Lost Colony- Roanoke Island settlement


The First English Colony

The Settlement at Jamestown


Roanoke Island, North Carolina: The Roanoke Colony (The Lost Colony) was the first English colony in the New World chartered in 1584.


            - Sir Walter Raleigh: had received a charter for the colonization of Virginia from Queen Elizabeth I of England, financed and organized the expedition.


            - 1585: a colonizing expedition composed solely of men (many of them veteran soldiers) was sent to establish the colony.


                        * Sir Richard Grenville: leader of the expedition (and cousin to Raleigh)


                                    ^ Grenville’s three duties:

                                                1.) assigned to further explore the area

                                                2.) establish the colony

                                                3.) return to England with news of the venture's success.


            - Despite major problems, Grenville leaves a group of 100 behind on the island and returns to England.


            - July 1587: New settlers arrive...and there is no colony left.


                        * Sir Walter Raleigh: leader


                        * # of colonists: 117 men, women, and children


                        * Virginia Dare: She was the first English child born in America on August 18, 1587


1606: a company of London investors received from King James a charter to found a colony in North America.


late 1606: the company’s three ships, and more than 100 settlers,pushed out of an English harbor. About four months later,in 1607, they reached the coast of Virginia.

                The colonists claimed the land as theirs.  They call their settlement Jamestown.


Early problems in Jamestown: The settlers were more interested in finding gold than in planting crops.


            - rate of death: seven out of every ten people died


                        * 4 causes: hunger, disease, or battles with the NativeAmericans.


England’s first permanent settlement in North America: Jamestown


            - importance of tobacco: High demand in England for tobacco, so it turned it into a really profitable cash crop.


Pilgrims: founded a second English colony, Plymouth, in Massachusetts.


- date: 1620


- Reasons for leaving England: Persecuted for their religious beliefs in England, and they wanted religious freedom.


Puritans: a group of people who sought freedom from religious persecution in England by founding a colony at Massachusetts Bay.


            - date: 1630


- goal: Puritans wanted to build a model community that would set an example for other Christians to follow.


- reason this colony survived: due in large part to the numerous families in the colony, unlike the mostly single, male population in Jamestown.



The English Arrive in North America… continued


The Dutch Found New Netherland


Colonizing the Caribbean


Henry Hudson: an Englishman in the service of the Netherlands- the Dutch East India Company to be exact.


- date: 1609, Henry Hudson


- ship: the "Half Moon” (an 80-ton ship)


            - reason for sailing: He was searching for a northwest sea route to Asia (“the Northwest Passage”).


                        * result: Hudson did not find a route. He did, however, explore three waterways.


^ 3 waterways:

1.) Hudson River

2.) Hudson Bay

3.) Hudson Strait


            - Iroquois: the Dutch trade with these natives


            - 1611:  Hudson is commanding a ship called “Discovery” sent to explore around Canada.  A mutiny broke out and Hudson, his son and a few

                          others were cast adrift in a small boat – to be never heard from again.


                                    * Mutineers were never punished. (Only a handfulof sailors made it back to England aboard the Discovery.)


7 Points on the Dutch:

1.) The Dutch claimed the region along these (Hudson) waterways.

2.) They established a fur trade with the Iroquois Indians.

3.) They built trading posts along the Hudson River at Fort Orange (now Albany) and on Manhattan Island.

4.) Dutch merchants formed the Dutch West India Company.

* 1621: the Dutch government granted the company permission to colonize the region and expand the fur trade.


5.) The Dutch holdings in North America became known as New Netherland.

6.) Although the Dutch company profited from its fur trade, it was slow to attract Dutch colonists.

7.) To encourage settlers, the colony opened its doors to a variety of peoples.


* result: Gradually more Dutch, as well as Germans, French, Scandinavians, and other Europeans, settled the area.

              (More people=more money)


The Caribbean:

1.)  The French seized control of present-day Haiti, Guadeloupe,and Martinique.

2.) The English settled Barbados and Jamaica.

3.) The Dutch captured what are now the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba from Spain.


- economic activity: the Europeans built huge cotton and sugar plantations.


- Labor intensive crops: These products, although profitable,demanded a large and steady supply of labor.


* how labor problem was solved: Enslaved Africans eventually would supply this labor.



Welcome to Weid's Buccaneer World 


"Piracy", in international law, is the crime of robbery, or other act of violence for private ends, on the high seas or in the air

              above the seas, committed by the captain or crew of a ship or aircraft outside the normal jurisdiction of any nation,

              and without authority from any government.


            So basically, Piracy is the act of robbing others transporting goods on the water.


Ancient pirates: They threatened the trading routes of ancient Greece, and seized cargoes of grain and olive oil from

                          Roman ships.


Golden Age of Piracy: 1680-1725


Pirate economics: To understand piracy, you have to understand the economics of the time… the more you have the

                             more you want.  Sound familiar???


Mercantilism: an economic theory practiced in Europe from the 16th to the 18th centuries based on the idea that a country’s

                      power came from its wealth.


Spanish monopoly: A pattern of trade, controlled strictly by the Spanish crown, had evolved based on the mercantilist

                              policies of the day. Spain's policy was to establish a monopoly, keeping her colonies dependent on her.

                              This monopoly was eventually challenged successfully by English and Dutch traders, but by law Spanish

                              colonials could trade only with the authorized Spanish merchant flotas.


            - colonials: people who lived in a colony


- Flotas: treasure fleets


- Galleon: Spanish cargo ship.


Casa de Contratacion: ("House of Trade") called for the periodic sailing of fleets from Spain to the Caribbean twice a

                                   year (though they hardly ever sailed on schedule).  They started this is the early 1500’s.


- fleets: carried manufactured goods for sale to the citizens of the New World, and were then filled with the rich

             treasures of the Americas for transport back to Spain.


            - “Treasure Coast”: nick name of the Florida coast where there are numerous sunken ships.


Height of the flota system: between 1590 and 1600.


Pirates of the Caribbean : most pirates were operating somewhere here during the "golden age".


 4 types of "pirates":

            1.) Pirates: robbers who travel by water.


            2.) Privateers: Privateers were men armed with a letter of marque who looted and pillaged in the name of their

                                   country; therefore their actions were condoned (legal).


                        * Letter of marque: authority formerly given to private persons to outfit an armed ship and use it to attack,

                                                       capture, and plunder of enemy merchant ships in time of war.


                                - Queen Elizabeth I encouraged privateering as a way to build up the British navy.  She gave out hundreds of letters of marque.


                        * Perfect examples of these mercenaries: Frances Drake and Henry Morgan, both of whom were so successful

                                                                                         they received knighthood from the English crown. Later Morgan

                                                                                         actually became the lieutenant-governor of Jamaica.


            3.) Buccaneers:  buccaneers lived on the Caribbean islands of Hispaniola and Tortuga.


                        * "job": the governors of Caribbean islands paid the buccaneers to attack Spanish treasure ships and

                                     ports. Although raids began in this way, with official backing, the buccaneers gradually

                                     became more and more out of control, eventually attacking any ship they thought carried

                                     valuable cargo, whether it belonged to an enemy country or not. The buccaneers had

                                     become true pirates.


            4.) Corsairs:  were pirates who operated in the Mediterranean Sea between the 15th and 18th centuries.


                        * "technique": Corsairs swooped down on their targets in swift oar-powered boats (called galleys)

                                               to carry off sailors and passengers.


                        * captives: Unless these unfortunates were rich enough to pay a ransom, they were sold as slaves or put

                                          to work as oarsmen on the corsair galleys.


Differences between privateers and pirates:

    1.) Privateers had an appointed captain.  If the crew wanted to replace him they had to mutiny.  Where as, pirates elected theirs with a majority vote, and

         he could be ousted just as easily by another vote.      

    2.) Privateers knew how to sail and navigate.  Most pirates were not good sailors, nor could they navigate because the large majority had deserted from

          the British navy. 

    3.) Technically, privateering was legal.  Piracy was not.


Although there was a line between privateers and pirates, it was more often a thin one and sometimes nearly indistinguishable.


4 reasons pirate attacks were successful:
            1.) Pirate ships usually carried far more crew than ordinary ships of a similar size. This meant they could easily

                 outnumber their victims.

            2.) Pirates altered their ships so that they could carry far more cannon than merchant ships of the same size.

            3.) Stories about pirate brutality meant that many of the most famous pirates had a terrifying reputation, and they

                 advertised this by flying various gruesome flags including the "Jolly Roger" with its picture of skull and


            4.)  Many times victims surrendered very quickly.  Sometimes there was no fighting at all.



Typical Pirate Punishments:


Pirates used a variety of punishments to discipline their own men and prisoners. The punishments varied according to the severity of the misdeed:



Common myths/misconceptions:

            1.) There is no record of pirates ever forcing prisoners to “walk the plank”. They had much more interesting methods of torture.


                        * In 1887 Howard Pyle wrote an article "Buccaneers and Marooners of the Spanish Main" for Harper's Weekly which he illustrated with the

                          painting "Walking the Plank" and in which he states that Blackbeard often forced his victims to walk the plank. There is no evidence that

                          Blackbeard ever used this form of punishment.


            2.) Pirates very rarely buried their treasure. They usually squandered it all on drinking, gambling, and women as soon as they got to shore.


            3.) They were also very unlikely to have parrots, mainly because they would make a mess and get in the way. If they did have parrots, however,

                  the birds were likely to be eaten once supplies ran low.


            4.) Pirates were NOT great sailors.  As said before, most pirates were not good sailors, nor could they navigate because the large majority had

                 deserted from the British navy.



Famous (or infamous) Pirates/Privateers:


            Sir Henry Morgan:  was one of the most ruthless of pirates, his daring, brutality, and intelligence made him the most feared, and respected

                                          buccaneer of all time. (Henry Morgan really was the king of all pirates.)


            Sir Francis Drake: Vice Admiral, was an English privateer, navigator, naval pioneer and raider, politician, civil engineer, and boating enthusiast of

                                         the Elizabethan period. He was the first Englishman (and the first captain of a non-Spanish ship) to circumnavigate the globe.

                                         He was also second in command of the English fleet against the Spanish Armada in 1588.


                        - Goldenhind:  (or Golden Hinde) was an English galleon best known for its global circumnavigation between 1577 and 1580, captained by

                                               Sir Francis Drake. She was originally known as the Pelican, and was renamed by Drake in mid-voyage in 1577, as he prepared to

                                               enter the Straits of Magellan, calling it the Golden Hind to compliment his patron, Sir Christopher Hatton, whose armorial crest

                                               was a golden hind (the heraldic term for a doe).


            Edward "Blackbeard" Teach: was undoubtedly was one the most feared and most despised pirates of all time.  He is thought to have lived in England

                                                         before his pirate career, although his exact origins are unknown. He was named "Blackbeard", for his large black beard

                                                         that almost covered his entire face. To strike terror in the hearts of his enemies Blackbeard would weave hemp into his

                                                         hair, and light it during battle. Edward Teach was an unusually large man, carrying two swords, numerous knives, and

                                                         pistols- he was feared by his own crew.


                                                         At the sight of this pirate, many of his victims were quick to surrender without a fight. If they did, he would often

                                                         times just take their valuables, rum, and weapons— allowing them to sail away. However, if the vessel resisted capture,

                                                         he would either kill the crew, or maroon them.


                                                         Blackbeard needed to maintain his devilish image in order to maintain the respect of his crew (very few members of

                                                         the crew doubted that he was the devil himself, very few didn’t fear him, and therefore they obeyed him).


                                                         In 1780 the Royal Navy captain who captured and killed Blackbeard, decapitated his corpse and hung his head on

                                                         the ships rigging. Blackbeard had captured over 40 ships during his piratical career, and had been the cause of the

                                                         deaths of hundreds of people. Although Blackbeard's lawless career lasted only a few years, his fearsome reputation has

                                                         long outlived him.


            Bartholomew Roberts: (Black Bart) was the most successful and menacing. He had a brief career (less than four years), yet he captured a

                                               mind staggering total of more than 400 ships.


            John Taylor: captured perhaps the most valuable prize.  He and his crew plundered a merchant ship with over 1,000,000 English pounds worth of

                                cargo on her.  Each pirates' share on the venture exceeded 4000 English pounds plus 42 small diamonds.


            Jack Rackam: (Calico Jack) was a pirate captain during the 18th century. He earned his name from the colorful Calico clothes he wore, but is

                                  now most famous for having the two most famous female pirates in his crew, Anne Bonny and Mary Read.  He was hanged for piracy.


            Anne Bonny:  Anne Bonny was one of the two most famous female pirates. Anne was Calico's lover but she could be counted as nonetheless fearless

                                  of any other pirate.  Anne fought in men's clothing was an expert with pistol and cutlass and considered as dangerous as any male

                                  pirate. She was fearless in battle and often was a member of any boarding party


            William Kidd:  (Robert Kidd, Captain Kidd), 17th-century British privateer and semi-legendary pirate who became celebrated in English literature

                                   as one of the most colorful outlaws of all time. The notorious Captain Kidd was neither particularly ruthless nor successful. Fortune

                                   seekers have hunted his  buried treasure in vain through succeeding centuries.


The Struggle for North America


The English Oust the Dutch


England Battles France


1664:  English King Charles II, granted his brother, (the Duke of York) permission to drive out the Dutch. When the duke’s fleet arrived at New Netherland, the

           Dutch surrendered without firing a shot. The Duke of York claimed the colony for England and renamed it New York.


With the Dutch gone:  The English colonized the Atlantic coast of North America.


- 1750: about 1.2 million English settlers lived in 13 colonies from Maine to Georgia.


English colonial expansion: France and England began to interfere with each other. It seemed that a major conflict was on the horizon.


1754:  a dispute over land claims in the Ohio Valley led to the French and Indian War.


French and Indian War: a conflict between Britain and France for control of territory in North America, lasting from 1754 to 1763.


            - Seven Years’ War: the conflict when Britain and France, along with their European allies, battling for supremacy in Europe, North America, the

                                            West Indies, and India.



Native Americans Respond

A Strained Relationship


Settlers and Native Americans Battle


Natives Fall to Disease


As in Mexico and South America, the arrival of Europeans in the present-day United States had a great impact on Native Americans. European colonization brought mostly disaster for the lands’ original inhabitants.


French and Dutch settlers and the Native Americans:

1.)  Developed a mostly cooperative relationship with the Native Americans, due mainly to the mutual benefits of the fur trade.


- Role of the Native Americans:  They did most of the trapping and then traded the furs to the French.


* Items traded for: guns, hatchets, mirrors, and beads.


2.) The Dutch also cooperated with Native Americans in an effort to establish a fur-trading enterprise.


3.) Dutch settlers fought with various Native American groups over land claims and trading rights. For the most part, however, the French and Dutch

     colonists lived together peacefully with the natives. 


English settlers and the Native Americans

1.) Early relations between English settlers and Native Americans  were cooperative. However, they quickly worsened.


                        - 3 disputed issues: land, tobacco, and religion.


2.) Unlike the French and Dutch, the English sought to populatetheir colonies in North America = pushing the natives off their land.


- 2 reasons for the land grab: The English colonists seized  more land for their population— and to grow tobacco.


            3.) Religious differences: 


                        * The English settlers: considered Native Americans heathens, people without a faith.


                        * Puritans viewed Native Americans as agents of the devil andas a threat to their godly society.


                        * Native Americans developed a similarly harsh view of the European invaders.


Natives vs settlers battles retaliate:


            - 1622:  the Powhatan tribe attacked colonial villages around Jamestown and killed about 350 settlers.  During the next few years, the colonists struck

                         back and massacred hundreds of Powhatan.


            - King Philip’s War: began in 1675 when the Native American ruler named Metacom (also known as King Philip) led an attack on colonial villages throughout

                                         Massachusetts. In the months that followed, both sides massacred hundreds of victims. After a year of fierce fighting, the colonists

                                         defeated the natives.


Native vs. Disease:  Much more destructive than the Europeans’ weapons were their diseases.


            1.) Like the Spanish in Central and South America, the Europeans who settled North America brought with them several diseases.

            2.) The diseases devastated the native population in North America.


                        - 1616: an epidemic of smallpox ravaged Native Americans living along the New England coast. The population of one tribe, the Massachusett,

                                   dropped from 24,000 to 750 by 1631.


            3.) From South Carolina to Missouri, nearly whole tribes fell to smallpox, measles, and other diseases.


            - Major effect of disease: this loss was a severe shortage of labor in the colonies. In order to meet their growing labor needs.


                        * result: European colonists soon turned to another group - the Africans, whom they would enslave by the million.




4-3: The Atlantic Slave Trade


History of slavery (see page 133)

            1.) Slavery probably began with the development of farming about 10,000 years ago.

            2.) Farmers used prisoners of war to work for them.

            3.) Slavery has existed in societies around the world. People were enslaved in civilizations from Egypt to China to India.

            4.) Race was not always a factor in slavery.

            5.) Often, slaves were captured prisoners of war, or people of a different nationality or religion.

            6.) The slavery that developed in the Americas was based largely on race.

            7.) Europeans viewed black people as naturally inferior.  Because of this, slavery in the Americas was hereditary.


To meet their growing labor needs, Europeans enslave millions of Africans in the Americas.


4 Early Reasons for Slavery

            1.) Sugar plantations and tobacco farms required a large supply of workers to make them profitable for their owners.

            2.) European owners had planned to use Native Americans as a source of cheap labor. But millions of Native Americans died from disease, warfare,

                 and brutal treatment.

            3.) Europeans in Brazil, the Caribbean soon turned to Africa for workers.

            4.) Around 1500, European colonists in the Americas who needed cheap labor began using enslaved Africans on plantations and farms.


The Causes of African Slavery

Slavery in Africa

The Demand for Africans


Points on Early Slavery in Africa:

            1.) Slavery had existed in Africa for centuries. In most regions, it was a relatively minor institution.

            2.) The spread of Islam into Africa during the seventh century, however, ushered in an increase in slavery and the slave trade.

            3.) Muslim rulers in Africa justified enslavement with the Muslim belief that non-Muslim prisoners of war could be bought and sold as  slaves.  As a

                 result, between A.D. 650 and 1600, Muslims transported about 17 million Africans to the Muslim lands of North Africa and Southwest Asia.

            4.) In most African and Muslim societies, slaves had some legal rights

            5.) Some even had an opportunity for social mobility.


                        - social mobility: the ability to change one's social class.


            6.) In the Muslim world, a few slaves even occupied positions of influence and power. Some served as generals in the army.       

            7.) In African societies, slaves could escape their bondage in numerous ways, including marrying into the family they served.



Portuguese and slavery:  The first Europeans to explore Africa were the Portuguese during the 1400s. Initially, Portuguese traders were more interested in trading

                                     for gold than for captured Africans. That changed with the colonization of the Americas, as natives began dying by the millions.


4 advantages in using Africans in the Americas:

            1.)  Many Africans had been exposed to European diseases and had built up some immunity.

            2.) Many Africans had experience in farming and could be taught plantation work.

            3.) Africans were less likely to escape because they did not knowtheir way around the new land.

            4.) Africans' skin color made it easier to catch them if they escaped and tried to live among others.


Atlantic Slave Trade:  the buying, transporting, and selling of Africans for work in the Americas. 


            - 1500-1600: nearly 300,000 Africans were transported to the Americas.


            - 1600-1700: the number of slaves climbed to almost 1.3 million.


            - 1873: date the slave trade ended, Europeans had imported about 9.5 million Africans to the Americas.


The Causes of African Slavery (Continued)


Spain and Portugal Lead the Way


Slavery Spreads Throughout the Americas

England Dominates the Slave Trade


African Cooperation and Resistance


Spanish: took an early lead in importing Africans to the Americas. Spain moved on from the Caribbean and began to colonize the American mainland. As a result,

              the Spanish imported and enslaved thousands more Africans.


            - 1650: nearly 300,000 Africans labored throughout Spanish America on plantations and in gold and silver mines.


Portuguese: surpassed the Spanish in the importation of Africans to the Americas.


            - Brazil: During the 1600's, it dominated the European sugar market.


                        * As the colony’s sugar industry grew, so too did European colonists’ demand for cheap labor.


                        * During the 17th century, more than 40 percent of all Africans brought to the Americas went to Brazil.


English: From 1690 until 1807, it was the leading carrier of enslaved Africans.


            - 1807: England abolished the slave trade.


            - The English transported nearly 1.7 million Africans to their colonies in the West Indies.


            - English also brought slaves into their American colonies.  Nearly 400,000 Africans were sold to Britain’s North American colonies.


            - Once in North America, the slave population steadily grew. By 1830, roughly 2 million slaves toiled in the United States.


African Cooperation and Resistance:

            1.) Many African rulers and merchants played a willing role in the Atlantic slave trade.

            2.) Most European traders, rather than travel inland, waited in ports along the coasts of Africa.

            3.) African merchants, with the help of local rulers, captured Africans to be enslaved. They then delivered them to the Europeans.

            4.) Slaves were traded in exchange for gold, guns, and other goods.

            5.) As the slave trade grew, some African rulers voiced their opposition to the practice. Nonetheless, the slave trade steadily grew.  

            6.) Lured by its profits, many African rulers continued to participate.

            7.) African merchants developed new trade routes to avoid rulers who refused to cooperate.


A Forced Journey

The Triangular Trade

            − manufactured goods move from Europe to Africa

            − people move from Africa to Americas

            − sugar, coffee, tobacco move from Americas to Europe


The Middle Passage


Triangular trade: the transatlantic trading network along which slaves and other goods were carried between Africa, England, Europe, the West Indies, and the

                           colonies in North America.  The network carried a variety of traded goods.


2 basic triangular trade routes:


Route 1- Europe to the West Indies

            - Europeans transported manufactured goods to the west coast of Africa. There, traders exchanged these goods for captured Africans.

            - The Africans were then transported across the Atlantic and sold in the West Indies.

            - Merchants bought sugar, coffee, and tobacco in the West Indies and sailed to Europe with these products.


Route 2 - Americas to the Americas

            - Merchants carried rum and other goods from the New England colonies to Africa. There they exchanged their merchandise for Africans.

            - The traders transported the Africans to the West Indies and sold them for sugar and molasses.

            - They then sold these goods to rum producers in New England.



Middle Passage:  The middle leg of the transatlantic trade triangle was the voyage that brought captured Africans to the West Indies and later to North and

                         South America. Sickening cruelty characterized this journey.


            - Points on the Middle Passage:

                        1.) In African ports: European traders packed Africans into the dark holds of large ships. (packed in like sardines)

                        2.) On board, Africans endured whippings and beatings from merchants.

                        3.) Numerous Africans died from disease or physical abuse   aboard the slave ships.

                        4.) Anyone showing even the slightest sign of either of these diseases was thrown overboard alive. This was done by the captain to prevent

                             at all costs an epidemic aboard the ship.

                        5.) A typical Atlantic crossing took 60-90 days, but some lasted up to four months.

                        6.) A few of the Africans were driven insane by the claustrophobic misery they experienced while on the ships. Those who had gone mad were

                             often brought up on deck, at which time they were either flogged or clubbed to death and then thrown overboard.                      

                        7.) Many others committed suicide by drowning.

                        8.) Sharks could be seen following the slave ships for a free meal.

                        9.) Scholars estimate that roughly 20% of the Africans aboard each slave ship perished during the brutal trip.

                        10.) Roughly 54,000 voyages were made by Europeans to buy and sell slaves.


            - Description of the conditions on the Middle Passage

                        * Africans were often treated like cattle during the crossing.                   

                        * On the slave ships, people were stuffed between decks in spaces too low for standing.

                        * The heat was often unbearable, and the air nearly unbreathable.

                        * Women were often used sexually.

                        * Men were often chained in pairs, shackled wrist to wrist or ankle to ankle.

                        * People were crowded together, usually forced to lie on their backs with their heads between the legs of others. This meant they often had to lie

                          in each other's feces, urine, and, in the case of dysentery, even blood.

                        * In such cramped quarters, diseases such as smallpox and yellow fever spread like wildfire.

                        * The diseased were sometimes thrown overboard to prevent wholesale epidemics.

                        * Because a small crew had to control so many, cruel measures such as iron muzzles and whippings were used to control slaves. 

                        * Over the centuries, between one and two million persons died in the crossing. This meant that the living were often chained to the dead until

                          ship surgeons had the corpses thrown overboard. 


Slavery in the Americas

A Harsh Life

• In Americas, captured Africans sold at auction to highest bidder

• Life is difficult: long work hours; poor food, housing, clothing


Resistance and Rebellion

• Africans maintain musical, cultural traditions

• Some resist by breaking tools or working slowly

• Some run away or take part in revolts


Consequences of the Slave Trade

Results in Africa and the Americas

• African societies suffer from loss of so many people

• African families disrupted

• In Americas, labor of enslaved people helps build new societies

• Enslaved Africans affect culture in Americas

• Population in Americas changes


Slave life:  Upon arriving in the Americas…

            1.) Africans usually were auctioned off to the highest bidder.

            2.) Slaves worked in mines or fields or as domestic servants.

            3.) Slaves lived a grueling existence.

                        - Many lived on little food in small, dreary huts.

                        - They worked long days and suffered beatings.

            4.) Slavery was a lifelong condition, as well as a hereditary one.


Slave ResistanceSlaves also found ways to numerous ways to resist.

            1.) They made themselves less productive by breaking tools, uprooting plants, and working slowly.

            2.) Thousands also ran away.

            3.) Some slaves pushed their resistance to open revolt.


                        - 1522: about 20 slaves on Hispaniola attacked and killedseveral Spanish colonists.


            4.) Larger revolts occurred throughout Spanish settlements during the 16th century.

            5.) Occasional uprisings also occurred in Brazil, the West Indies, and North America.


                                    - 1739: group of slaves in South Carolina led an uprising known as the Stono Rebellion.


                                                            * Name:  Called this because it as was at the Stono River where the slave ownerscaught up with the rebelling slaves.


                                                            * date: September 9, 1739


                                                            * as a documented rebellion:  The Stono rebellion was only one among the 250  rebellions documented in the Colonies

                                                                                                           and later in the southern United States. It was the largest slave uprising in the Colonies

                                                                                                           prior to the American Revolution.


                                                            * numbers involved: 60-100 slavesbetween 30-100 slave owners


                                                                        White slave owners killed: 20


                                                                        Slaves killed: 40+


                                                            * Result: South Carolina's lawmakers enacted a harsher slave code. This new code severely limited the privileges of


                                                                                    They were no longer allowed to:                                                                                                           1.)                                                                                                1.) Grow their own food

                                                                                                2.)  Assemble in groups

                                                                                                3.) Earn their own money

                                                                                                4.) Learn to read.


                                                                        Some of these restrictions were already in place, but they had not been strictly enforced.


            6.) Uprisings continued into the 1800s.



4-4: The Columbian Exchange and Global Trade


The colonization of the Americas introduces new items into Eastern and Western hemispheres.


4 ways colonization of the Americas changed the world:

            1.) It prompted both voluntary and forced migration of millions of people.

            2.) It led to the establishment of new and powerful societies.

            3.) Colonization resulted in the exchange of new items that greatly influenced the lives of people throughout the world.

            4.) The new wealth from the Americas resulted in new business and trade practices in Europe.


The Columbian Exchange


Columbian Exchange:  The global transfer of foods, plants, and animals during the colonization of the Americas.


            - 12 items the Americas sent to Europe:  tomatoes, squash, pineapples, tobacco, cacao beans (for chocolate), turkey, avocado, peppers, peanuts, vanilla,

                                                                         corn and potatoes.


            - Benefits/effects of corn and potatoes

                        1.) Both were inexpensive to grow and nutritious.

                                                * Potatoes, especially, supplied many essential vitamins and minerals.


                        2.) Both crops became an important and steady part of diets throughout the world.

                        3.) These foods helped people live longer.

                        4.) They played a significant role in boosting the world’s population.

                        5.) The planting of the first white potato in Ireland and the first sweet potato in China probably changed more lives than the deeds of 100

                             kings. (by preventing starvation and/or boosting trade)


            - 19 Items Europeans introduced into the Americas: horses, cattle, sheep, pigs, citrus fruits, sugar cane, honeybees, onions, olives, bananas,

                                                                                         turnips, peaches, pears, black-eyed peas, yams (sweet potatoes), wheat, rice, barley, and oats.


            - Effect of disease:  Disease brought over by the Europeans led to the deaths of millions of Native Americans. 


                        * 7 diseases:

                                    1.) Smallpox

                                    2.) Influenza

                                    3.) Typhus

                                    4.) Measles

                                    5.) Malaria

                                    6.) Diphtheria

                                    7.) Whooping Cough


Global Trade

Changing Economies


The Rise of Capitalism


Joint-Stock Companies


Global trade was greatly influenced by two things:

            1.) New wealth from the Americas

            2.) Dramatic growth in overseas trade.


4 new economic practices/problems:

            1.) Capitalism: an economic system based on private ownership and the investment of resources, such as money, for profit.


                        - 3 points on capitalism:

                                    1.) No longer were governments the sole owners of great wealth. Due to overseas colonization and trade, numerous merchants had

                                          obtained great wealth.

                                    2.) These merchants continued to invest their money in trade and overseas exploration.

                                    3.) Profits from these investments enabled merchants and traders to reinvest even more money in other enterprises.


            2.) There was an overall increase in many nations’ money supply.

            3.) Inflation:  the steady rise in the price of goods.


                                    - When it occurs: inflation occurs when people have more money to spend and thus demand more goods and services.


                                    - law of supply and demand:  Because the supply of goods is less than the demand for them, the goods become both scarce and more



                                    - effect on pricing: Prices then rise.


                                    - in Spain:  The Spanish endured a crushing bout of inflation during the 1600s, as boatloads of gold and silver from the Americas greatly

                                                     increased the nation’s money supply.


            4.) Joint-stock companies were formed.  These involved a number of people combining their wealth for a common purpose.  In the 1500s and 1600s,

                 that common purpose was American colonization.


                                    - joint-stock company: a business in which investors pool their wealth for a common purpose then share the profits.


                                                * much like today: The joint-stock company worked much like the modern-day corporation, with investors buying shares of stock in a



                                                * 5 points on jointstock companies:

                                                            1.) It took large amounts of money to establish overseas colonies.

                                                            2.) While profits may have been great, so were risks.

                                                            3.) Many ships never completed the long and dangerous ocean voyage.

                                                            4.) Because jointstock companies involved numerous investors, the individual members paid only a fraction of the total

                                                                 colonization cost.

                                                            5.) If the colony failed, investors lost only their small share. If the colony thrived, the investors shared in the profits.


                                                * Jamestown: It was a jointstock company that was responsible for establishing Jamestown, England’s first North

                                                                     American colony.




The Growth of Mercantilism


New Economic Policy


Balance of Trade


Mercantilism: an economic theory practiced in Europe from the 16th to the 18th centuries based on the idea that a country’s power came from its wealth. 

                     A country would do everything possible to acquire more gold, preferably at the expense of its rivals.


            - 2 ways a nation could increase its wealth and power:

                        1.) It could obtain as much gold and silver as possible.

                        2.) It could establish a favorable balance of trade - where it sold more goods than it bought.


            - Nation’s ultimate goal under mercantilism: to become self-sufficient, not dependent on other countries for goods.


            - 3 roles of colonies in mercantilism:

                        1.) Source of silver and gold

                        2.) Colonies provided raw materials that could not be found in the home country.


                                                * Examples: wood or furs.  


                        3.) Provided a market for finished goods. (The home country could sell its goods to its colonies.)


The Growth of Mercantilism… continued


Economic Revolution Changes European Society


10 effects of American colonization: led to changes in European society.

            1.) The economic revolution spurred the growth of towns

            2.) Created a rise of a class of merchants who controlled great wealth.

            3.) Towns and cities grew in size.

            4.) Much of Europe’s population continued to live in rural areas.

            5.) Merchants and traders enjoyed social mobility

            6.) The majority of Europeans remained poor.

            7.) The economic revolution increased the wealth of European nations.

            8.) Capitalism was introduced… and it stuck.

            9.) The joint-stock company became the forerunner to themodern-day corporation, with investors buying shares of stock in a company.

            10.) Mercantilism contributed to the creation of a national identity.