Quote: “With any major upheaval in history, the causes are never simple or few.”
- meaning: It takes many things to cause any event.
Things don’t just happen overnight.
Martin Luther’s protest over abuses in the Catholic Church led to the founding of Protestant churches.
John Wycliff: an English priest, is considered the precursor to the Protestant Reformation.
- 3 Beliefs
1.) He initiated the first English translation of the
2.) He believed that any church claims of power
should be ignored and that the peoples should base
their faith solely on the scripture.
3.) He thought that souls had just as much a chance to
be saved if they worshipped outside of the church.
- The church was outraged, and demeaningly called his
followers Lollards, or "mumblers of prayers and psalms."
Jan Hus: was
a priest in the
attempted to bring about reforms like those attempted by
- Reaction from others: While the people around him
thought them heretical and forbade them, Hus
thought they had a right to be taught.
- On the Church, Through his various disagreements and
dealings, Hus came to think the church corrupt, and
left his native land to write a work which criticized
the manner in which it was run. His teachings
appealed to the masses, and he developed a group
of followers know as Hussites.
- 1413: Hus was invited to a council designed to reform the
church, but when he arrived he was arrested for his
views. The following trial was in many ways just a
formality, as he was guilty the moment he stepped
- July 6, 1415: Hus was burned at the stake for heresy.
Desiderius Erasmus: Most famous Christian humanist.
- 3 basic ideas:
1.) Encouraged his fellow scholars to study Greek and
Hebrew so that they could understand older
versions of the Bible.
2.) Prompted people to look critically at the Church.
3.) Attacked the extravagance of the Renaissance
- The Praise of Folly: His essay that describes the
corruption and extravagance of the Renaissance popes.
He said they were so corrupt that they no longer even
Protestant Reformation: a movement that caused a change in the
Church’s ways of teaching and practicing
- where it
Protestantism: A new form of Christianity which was a result of the Reformation.
- Protestant: A protestant is any non-Catholic Christian.
Martin Luther: German monk & professor at the University of
- 1505: Year in which Luther was almost struck by lightening
during a thunderstorm. Terrified he made a
promise to God that if He would allow Luther to live,
Luther would become a monk and dedicate his life
to the Church.
- early problems: Luther really had a hard time thinking
about his salvation. He would confess his
sins for hours on end, and still not be
satisfied that God would find him
righteous shall live.” This helped Luther put aside
his worries because he felt hat the Bible passage
meant that a person could be made just, or good,
simply by faith in God’s mercy and love.
** Major Problem: The Catholic Church taught that a
person needed faith and participation
in the Church sacraments to get into
- “justification by faith”: Luther’s concept that faith alone is
enough to bring salvation. This will
become a main point in the
* “born again”: Luther’s feeling when he realized that
salvation was attainable to him simply
because he had a strong faith.
*** Luther’s ideas bring him in direct opposition
Pope Leo X: Leader of the Catholic Church who wanted to rebuild
St. Peter’s Basilica. The only problem was that he
didn’t have any money, so began the sale of Church
offices and indulgences as a fund raiser.
- goal: to make St. Peter’s Basilica the largest and most
beautiful church in Christendom.
- St. Peter’s Basilica: The largest Christian church in the
indulgences: a pardon sold by the Catholic Church to reduce
one’s punishment for sins.
- why purchased: to “escape” some time in Hell for one’s
- JohnTetzel: the Church’s agent for selling indulgences in
* 2 actions: He told peasants that if they purchased an
1.) He said it would relieve them of guilt for future
2.) He encouraged them to buy indulgences for
the salvation of their dead relatives.
* jingle: “Once you hear the money’s ring, a soul from
purgatory is free
- Purgatory: according to Catholic Church teaching, a place
in the afterlife where people are made “fit” for
church door so everyone could see his ideas.
* 95 Theses: Luther’s ideas on religion and Church
^ effect of printing press: Printers quickly printed his
and sent them all over
people could read Luther’s ideas. With people
reading his ideas, the sale of indulgences
Luther’s action: Luther, fired up by the public response his 95 Theses
received, begins to publish hundreds of essays
advocating justification by faith and attacking other
Church abuses. Obviously, the people were beginning to
turn away from the Church and wanted to hear someone
Lutheranism: The first Protestant faith which believed that salvation can
be achieved by faith alone and that religious truth and
authority lies in the Bible. (Luther simplified Church
doctrine and rituals.)
- basic teachings:
* One could attain salvation by faith alone.
* No amount of good works can win God’s approval for
* Only trust in God’s love and mercy will win salvation
- minister: a person who preached the Bible and conducted
Protestant worship service. Unlike priests, this
Individual could be married and have children.
- Luther’s main 3 points:
1.) Luther emphasized that the Church was not a
hierarchy of clergy, but a community of believers.
2.) All useful occupations, not just the priesthood or
ministry, were important.
3.) There were vocations (callings from God) in which
people could serve God and
His ideas, especially about work, appealed to the merchants and artisans. They were glad that a religion finally gave them respect for their occupation.
Pope Leo X sends envoys (special agents) to
- 1520: Pope Leo issues a statement in which he formally
condemns Martin Luther and banned his works. No
Catholic was allowed to listen to or have in their
possession any of Luther’s ideas. This was
punishable by excommunication.
* excommunication: Being exiled from the Church.
One could no longer receive the sacraments,
and therefore would not attain salvation.
Anyone that associated with an
excommunicated person would suffer the same
- 1521: Pope Leo X formally excommunicates Luther from
the Catholic Church.
- diet: German for meeting, or council.
- conclusion of group: They condemn Luther as a heretic
and order his immediate arrest.
They also formalize the papal
- Luther’s reaction: He said, “I cannot and will not recant
anything……..so help me God!”
Now since he is branded an outlaw by both the Church and secular officials he must go into hiding to stay alive.
Luther in his castle in Wartburg.
- translation: While in hiding Luther translated the New
Testament into German.
* effects: The translation makes it more accessible and
affordable for common people to own and
English Reformation: More about freedom to decide one’s fate than about religion.
- when: 1500’s
Henry VIII: English king who got into a serious quarrel with the pope over succession to the throne. He broke ties with the Catholic Church and established his own state religion.
- major issue with wives: Henry needed a male heir to the
throne… and wasn’t getting one.
- Catherine of
forced to marry her after the death of his brother,
Arthur (she was Arthur’s widow). Together Henry
and Catherine six children, with only Mary I
Henry still has the problem of needing a male heir to secure the throne for the Tudor family and prevent another civil war.
- Anne Boleyn: second wife of Henry VIII whose marriage
sparked a huge fight between Henry and the
Church; mother of
* 1527: The solution: Henry needs a divorce. The
problem: the Catholic Church does not allow
divorce. Henry asks the pope, who promptly
tells him, “No way” - due not to the Catholic
teachings, but to politics.
* Charles V: nephew to Catherine of Aragon. The pope
depends on good old Chucky for military
protection. If the pope gives Henry a divorce,
Charles V will no longer protect the papal states.
^ effect: If the pope gives Henry a divorce,
Charles V will no longer protect the
- problems with the Catholic Church: Henry marries Anne in
spite of the friction it causes with the Church.
- with the backing of Parliament: With Parliament’s
support, Henry decides to break away from the
Catholic Church and form his own religion.
- what he was trying to show: He claimed his action was
the will of the English people--- even if it wasn’t.
- 1534: Act of Supremacy - law of Parliament that legally
separated the Church of England from the Catholic
Church, and made the king (in this case, Henry) the
head of the
**** Now Henry can give himself a divorce and it’s legal!
- daughter with Anne: Elizabeth I
Still no son. Time to get rid of Anne and find a new wife. Henry couldn’t just divorce her because he would look bad to the people. So, he trumps up a charge of treason against her. She was NOT guilty of treason.
- execution of Anne Boleyn: beheaded
* reason: for treason
- Jane Seymour: Henry VIII’s third wife; mother of Edward.
* Edward VI: only male heir of Henry VIII; ruled with a
council of lords beginning at age 9. He
really didn’t do much of anything.
^ effect of his death: Back to the problem of
who should rule. The Lords decided to
allow Mary to rule…hopefully able to
control her like they did Edward.
Didn’t work. Mary decides to rule for
herself… sort of.
- Mary I: daughter of Henry VIII;
married to Philip II of
– another Catholic country.
* Mary and Philip have no children. She develops a
brain tumor and it affects her thinking. Made her
really paranoid too.
* her reign: 1553-58; really bad
* changes she made: tried to restore Catholicism as
the official religion of
hundreds of Protestants by having them burned at
* “Bloody Mary”: nickname she earned, but it
strengthened the popular support for
- 1558: Mary I dies.
Elizabeth I: English queen who, in order to unite her people,
made the English Church Protestant with Catholic
- changes she made: made the English Church Protestant
with Catholic features – now called
* Anglicanism: a blend of Protestant belief with
Catholic practices: Also known as the
Church of England.
^ Puritans: Protestants who insisted on removing
ALL Catholic features from the Church of
people didn’t want that. These extremists
(We call them “Pilgrims”)
As Protestant reformers divide over beliefs, the Catholic Church makes reforms.
2 reasons for division in the Protestant Reformation:
1.) Reformers did not believe in the same methods
2.) Reformers did not even agree on the same goals.
leader of the Protestant movement in
- dates: 1484-1531
- 2 beliefs:
1.) Stressed salvation by faith alone.
2.) Denounced many Catholic beliefs and practices
such as purgatory, and the sale of indulgences.
- how he differed from Martin Luther: Zwingli differed from
Martin Luther because he wanted to break
completely away from the Catholic Church.
- Zwinglism: Huldrych Zwingli’s ideas and practices of
- theocracy: a church-run state.
- by 1525: Zwingli had achieved
his goal in
- 1531: Religious war broke out over Protestant missionary
activities in Catholic areas
and his followers (about 1,500) were defeated by an
army of 8,000 Catholics.
John Calvin: Swiss religious leader who proclaimed the doctrine of predestination.
- 3 areas of education: theology, law, and humanism
* effect on him: prompted him study the Bible very
carefully and eventually formulate his
own Protestant theology.
- The Institutes of the Christian Religion: Book of John
Calvin’s protestant religion. Became one of the
most popular books of the day. Influenced
* date: published in 1536
- 3 points of his theology:
1.) God possessed all encompassing power and
2.) God alone directed everything that has happened in
The past, is happening in the present, and will
happen in the future.
3.) predestination: the belief that God predetermines
each person’s fate.
- his ideal
- the Consistory: a Church council of 12 elders, created by
John Calvin, that was given the power to
control almost every aspect of people’s daily
* 5 actions of the Consistory:
1.) All citizens were required to attend Reformed
church services several times each week.
2.) Inspected homes annually to make sure that
no one was disobeying any church law.
3.) Forbade fighting, swearing, drunkenness,
gambling, card playing, and dancing.
4.) Dispensed harsh punishments to anyone who
disobeyed the laws.
5.) People convicted of holding Catholic beliefs or
of practicing witchcraft could be executed.
- 2 reasons Calvinism spread:
1.) It was led by local councils of ministers and elected
church members, so it was easy to establish in most
2.) It’s somewhat democratic nature gave its
participants some stake in its welfare and inspired
the Reformation in
- how he used Calvinism: As an extension of Calvinism’s
democratic ideals, he encouraged people to
overthrow tyrannical rulers if they were not moral
and/or abused their authority.
Calvinism: the protestant religion started by John Calvin
- modern name: Presbyterianism
- as a dynamic social force: Because of it’s emphasis on
democracy, Calvinism became a dynamic social force
in western Europe in the 1500’s and contributed to the
rise of the revolutionary movements later in the 1600’s
Other Protestant Reformers
Anabaptists: new Protestant groups in western Europe who initiated the practice of admitting only adult members.
- 4 beliefs/actions:
1.) Believed that only people who could make a free
and informed choice to become Christians should
be allowed to do so.
NOTE: Catholic and established Protestant
churches baptized infants – parents made the
choice for them.
2.) They denied the authority of local governments to
direct their lives.
3.) They refused to hold public office, bear arms, or
4.) Many (the more fanatical in the group) chose to live
apart from what they saw as a sinful society.
- zealot: a religious fanatic—always taking things to the
- 1534: A radical group of Anabaptists seized power in
seize private property, and practice polygamy. (the
practice of having more than one spouse)
* result: The German Catholics and Lutherans united to
crush them. They killed the Anabaptist leaders
and persecuted any surviving Anabaptist
believers. This caused many Anabaptist
- 2 American ideals promoted by:
1.) religious liberty
2.) separation of church and state
The Catholic Reformation
7 areas remaining Catholic during the Protestant Reformation:
Catholic (Counter) Reformation: movement of the Middle Ages to
reform the Catholic Church.
- 3 major actions:
1.) Eliminated many abuses
2.) Clarified its theology
3.) Reestablished the pope’s authority over church
Ignatius Loyola: Spanish noble who gave up his easy life to serve
God. He is the founder of the Society of Jesus –
the Jesuits – in 1521.
- “spiritual exercises”: Mediations to calm oneself and
achieve an inner peace.
- need to improve the education of his order: he felt they
needed to improve their level of education so
they could preach more effectively.
His group went to
not by the sword (or by for of force for that matter),
but through education.
- 1540: Loyola founds a new religious order
- Society of Jesus (Jesuits): followers of Ignatius of
* 9 actions/characteristics:
1.) pledged absolute obedience to the pope
2.) wore the black robes of monks
3.) Lived simple lives, but did not withdraw from
the world like other monks.
4.) preached to the people
5.) helped the poor
6.) set up schools
7.) taught in universities
8.) worked as missionaries
9.) served as advisers to royal courts
* effects of missionary efforts: Helped the Church
retain the loyalty of people in southern
* Jesuit universities: were prominent centers of
education for the next 200 years. They are
still considered to be some the best in the
* 10 subjects taught there: (besides Catholic theology)
* educational reputation: considered to be the
best. Very challenging curriculum.
Paul III: Pope who, in 1536, created a council of cardinals and bishops to prepare a report on the need for reform.
- 5 goals of reform movement:
1.) Eliminate abuses.
2.) Introduce a rebirth of faith among its followers.
3.) Reassess the Church’s principles
4.) Restore the authority of the pope.
5.) Halt the spread of Protestantism.
Inquisition: a Church court
- 1542: Inquisition began.
- purposes: to find, try and judge heretics – especially
Protestants, and try to restore the authority of
- censorship: to restrict what people can/cannot read in an
attempt to control them.
- 1543: Church introduced censorship, in the form of the
Index, to curtail the humanist thinking that had
fueled the Italian Renaissance.
* Index of Prohibited Books: First published in 1948,
this list contained any books deemed
unsuitable for Catholics to own or read.
The Index of Forbidden Books was last
published in 1966.
^ penalty for reading/owning: excommunication
- 8 actions:
1.) Strictly and clearly defined Catholic doctrine.
2.) Declared that salvation cannot be attained by faith
alone, but only by faith and works together.
3.) The Latin Vulgate translation was made the only
acceptable version of scripture.
4.) Church hierarchy was the only authority for all
5.) Forbade the selling of indulgences.
6.) Clergy was ordered to follow strict rules of
7.) Each diocese had to establish a seminary for the
proper education of priests. All priests must go to
a seminary prior to ordination.
^ seminary: schools for the education of priests.
8.) Mass should be only said in Latin.
2 phases for ending Protestantism:
1.) Reform the Catholic Church
2.) Launch a missionary offensive against the Protestants to
reclaim formerly Catholic lands which were now
The Legacy of the Reformation
2 reasons for the success of the Catholic Reformation:
1.) Increased religious devotion
2.) Helped correct many church abuses
failure of Catholic Reformation: It did not succeed in
European areas which remained Protestant
Reasons why the Europeans supported the Protestant Reformation:
1.) Religious conviction
2.) German princes often accepted Protestant teachings in order to
increase their own power. They made Lutheranism and Calvinism
the state religion, placing it under their protection and control.
(Allowed them to steal back Church lands.)
4.) Townspeople rallied to the new faith which supported their business
5.) Many peasants sided with Protestantism as a form of protest against
the Catholic nobility.
6.) Northern Europeans saw Protestantism as a way to defy an
Italian-controlled Catholic Church that drained so much money from
their homelands. (the major reason)
11 Major Effects of the Protestant Reformation Handout
1.) Weakened the political power of the Roman Catholic Church.
2.) Helped new nations become more independent.
3.) Increased the power of the kings.
4.) Helped the spread of democracy and representative governments.
5.) Increased the role of the people in church government.
6.) Strengthened the role of the middle class.
7.) Encouraged education.
8.) Strengthened and improved religious practices.
9.) Reawakened an interest in religion.
10.) Prevented further abuses in the Catholic Church.
11.) Promoted religious toleration.