MWH: Chapter 1 The Protestant Reformation 1500–1600

 

Section 3: Luther Leads the Reformation

Quote:  “With any major upheaval in history, the causes are never simple or few.”

 

        - meaning:  It takes many things to cause any event. 

                          Things don’t just happen overnight.

 

Martin Luther’s protest over abuses in the Catholic Church led to the founding of Protestant churches.

 

Causes of the Reformation

 

Church Authority Challenged

        1.) Secularism, individualism of Renaissance challenge  

             Church authority

        2.) Rulers challenge Church’s power

        3.) Printing press spreads secular ideas

        4.) Northern merchants resent paying church taxes

 

Criticisms of the Catholic Church

        1.) Corrupt leaders, extravagant popes

        2.) Poorly educated priests

 

Early Calls for Reform

        - John Wycliffe and Jan Hus stress Bible’s authority over

          clergy’s

        - Desiderius Erasmus and Thomas More are vocal critics of

          the Church

        - Reading religious works, Europeans form own opinions

          about Church

John Wycliff: an English priest, is considered the precursor to the Protestant Reformation.

 

        - 3 Beliefs

                1.) He initiated the first English translation of the

                    Bible.

                2.) He believed that any church claims of power

                    should be ignored and that the peoples should base

                    their faith solely on the scripture.

                3.) He thought that souls had just as much a chance to

                    be saved if they worshipped outside of the church.

 

        - The church was outraged, and demeaningly called his

          followers Lollards, or "mumblers of prayers and psalms."

 

Jan Hus: was a priest in the Czech Republic, who formed the Hussites,

              attempted to bring about reforms like those attempted by

              Wycliff in England.

 

        - Reaction from others:  While the people around him

                  thought them heretical and forbade them, Hus

                  thought they had a right to be taught.

 

        - On the Church, Through his various disagreements and

                   dealings, Hus came to think the church corrupt, and

                   left his native land to write a work which criticized

                   the manner in which it was run. His teachings

                   appealed to the masses, and he developed a group

                   of followers know as Hussites.

 

        - 1413: Hus was invited to a council designed to reform the

                   church, but when he arrived he was arrested for his

                   views. The following trial was in many ways just a

                   formality, as he was guilty the moment he stepped

                   in.

        - July 6, 1415: Hus was burned at the stake for heresy.

 

Desiderius Erasmus: Most famous Christian humanist.

 

       - 3 basic ideas: 

              1.) Encouraged his fellow scholars to study Greek and

                   Hebrew so that they could understand older   

                   versions of the Bible.

2.) Prompted people to look critically at the Church.

3.) Attacked the extravagance of the Renaissance

     popes.

 

       - The Praise of Folly: His essay that describes the

             corruption and extravagance of the Renaissance popes. 

             He said they were so corrupt that they no longer even

             practiced Christianity.

 

Luther Challenges the Church

 

The 95 Theses

        - Martin Luther protests Friar Johann Tetzel’s selling of

          indulgences

        - Indulgence:  a pardon releasing a person from the penalty

                              for a sin

        - In 1517 Luther posts his 95 Theses attacking the “pardon-

          merchants”

        - Luther’s theses circulate throughout Germany

        - Luther launches the Reformation: a movement for

          religious reform

        - Reformation rejects pope’s authority

 

Protestant Reformation: a movement that caused a change in the

                                   Church’s ways of teaching and practicing

                                   Christianity.

       - where it began: Germany

 

Protestantism: A new form of Christianity which was a result of the Reformation. 

 

       - Protestant: A protestant is any non-Catholic Christian.

 

Martin Luther: German monk & professor at the University of

                     Wittenberg who was the founder of the Protestant

                     Reformation

 

       - 1505: Year in which Luther was almost struck by lightening

                   during a thunderstorm.  Terrified he made a

                   promise to God that if He would allow Luther to live,

                   Luther would become a monk and dedicate his life

                    to the Church.

 

       - early problems: Luther really had a hard time thinking

                                about his salvation.  He would confess his

                                sins for hours on end, and still not be

                                satisfied that God would find him

                                acceptable.

 

       - St. Paul’s quote and its influence on Luther:  In the book of

                       Romans, St. Paul wrote, “He who through faith is

                      righteous shall live.” This helped Luther put aside

                      his worries because he felt hat the Bible passage

                      meant that a person could be made just, or good,

                      simply by faith in God’s mercy and love.

 

       ** Major Problem:  The Catholic Church taught that a

                                       person needed faith and participation

                                      in the Church sacraments to get into

                                     Heaven.

       - “justification by faith”:  Luther’s concept that faith alone is

                                           enough to bring salvation.  This will

                                           become a main point in the

                                           Lutheran religion.

 

              * “born again”: Luther’s feeling when he realized that

                                     salvation was attainable to him simply

                                     because he had a strong faith.

 

*** Luther’s ideas bring him in direct opposition

      with the Catholic Church.***

 

Pope Leo X: Leader of the Catholic Church who wanted to rebuild

                  St. Peter’s Basilica.  The only problem was that he

                  didn’t have any money, so began the sale of Church

                  offices and indulgences as a fund raiser.

 

       - goal: to make St. Peter’s Basilica the largest and most

                  beautiful church in Christendom.

 

       - St. Peter’s Basilica: The largest Christian church in the

                                     world.

 

Religious causes for the Protestant Reformation Graphic Organizer Handout

     
        - simony: selling positions (Church offices) in the

                        Catholic Church to the highest bidder.

                Examples: Pope, Cardinal, Archbishop, Bishop

 

        - sale of dispensations: an exemption from a law of the

                                    Church, or some vow previously

                                    taken.

                Examples: Marriage vows, not eating meat on

                                  Friday, celibacy vows for clergy

 

        - Abuses with the veneration of sacred relics

        - Scandalous lives of the clergy

        - Different theologies.

        - Ignorance of the clergy

        - Influence of the reformers

 

indulgences: a pardon sold by the Catholic Church to reduce

                   one’s punishment for sins.

 

       - why purchased: to “escape” some time in Hell for one’s

                                 sins.

 

       - JohnTetzel: the Church’s agent for selling indulgences in

                           northern Germany. 

 

              * 2 actions: He told peasants that if they purchased an

                  indulgence:

 

                     1.) He said it would relieve them of guilt for future

                           Sins.

                     2.) He encouraged them to buy indulgences for

                          the salvation of their dead relatives.

 

              * jingle: “Once you hear the money’s ring, a soul from

                             purgatory is free to spring.”


      
- Purgatory: according to Catholic Church teaching, a place

                         in the afterlife where people are made “fit” for

                         Heaven.

 

Wittenberg, Germany: Town where Luther preached against the sale of indulgences and other Church practices he felt were corrupt.

 

       - October 31, 1517: Luther “nailed” his 95 Theses to the

                             church door so everyone could see his ideas.

 

              * 95 Theses: Luther’s ideas on religion and Church

                                  practices.

                     ^ effect of printing press:  Printers quickly printed his

                              ideas and sent them all over Germany so many

                              people could read Luther’s ideas.  With people

                              reading his ideas, the sale of indulgences

                              dropped dramatically.

 

Luther’s action: Luther, fired up by the public response his 95 Theses

                       received, begins to publish hundreds of essays

                       advocating justification by faith and attacking other

                       Church abuses.  Obviously, the people were beginning to

                       turn away from the Church and wanted to hear someone

                       else’s ideas.

Luther’s Teachings

        - People can win salvation by good works and faith

        - Christian teachings must be based on the Bible, not the

           pope

        - All people with faith are equal, can interpret Bible

          without priests

 

Lutheranism: The first Protestant faith which believed that salvation can

                     be achieved by faith alone and that religious truth and

                     authority lies in the Bible.  (Luther simplified Church

                    doctrine and rituals.)

 

        - basic teachings:

                * One could attain salvation by faith alone.

                * No amount of good works can win God’s approval for

                  salvation.

                * Only trust in God’s love and mercy will win salvation

 

        - minister: a person who preached the Bible and conducted

                 Protestant worship service.  Unlike priests, this

                 Individual could be married and have children.

 

        - Luther’s main 3 points:

                1.) Luther emphasized that the Church was not a

                     hierarchy of clergy, but a community of believers.

                2.) All useful occupations, not just the priesthood or

                    ministry, were important.

                3.) There were vocations (callings from God) in which

                    people could serve God and their neighbors.


His ideas, especially about work, appealed to the merchants and artisans.  They were glad that a religion finally gave them respect for their occupation.
 

The Response to Luther - The Pope’s Threat

        - Pope Leo X issues decree threatening to excommunicate

          Luther (1520)

        - Luther’s rights of Church membership are taken away

        - Luther refuses to take back his statements and is  

          excommunicated.

Pope Leo’s response: Pope Leo X sends envoys (special agents) to Germany to find out why the sale of indulgences has dropped.  Once they find out what Luther is doing, the Pope pressures Luther to withdraw his criticisms – but it doesn’t work.

 

       - 1520: Pope Leo issues a statement in which he formally  

                   condemns Martin Luther and banned his works.  No

                   Catholic was allowed to listen to or have in their

                   possession any of Luther’s ideas.  This was

                   punishable by excommunication.

 

                     * excommunication:  Being exiled from the Church.  

                                     One could no longer receive the sacraments,

                                      and therefore would not attain salvation. 

                                      Anyone that associated with an

                                      excommunicated person would suffer the same

                                      punishment.

 

       - 1521: Pope Leo X formally excommunicates Luther from

                  the Catholic Church.

 

The Emperor’s Opposition

Charles V is Holy Roman Emperor

He issues Edict of Worms (1521), declaring Luther a heretic

Luther and followers begin a separate religious group: Lutherans


Diet of
Worms: a meeting of German princes who try to bring Luther back into the Church.  They wanted Luther to take back his criticisms, so Germany will be back in the good graces of the Church.

 

       - diet: German for meeting, or council.

 

       - conclusion of group:  They condemn Luther as a heretic

                                       and order his immediate arrest.

                                       They also formalize the papal

                                       excommunication.

 

       - Luther’s reaction: He said, “I cannot and will not recant

                                                anything……..so help me God!”

 

Now since he is branded an outlaw by both the Church and secular officials he must go into hiding to stay alive.

 

              * Frederick of Saxony: The German prince that hides

                                               Luther in his castle in Wartburg.

 

       - translation:  While in hiding Luther translated the New

                            Testament into German.

 

              * effects:  The translation makes it more accessible and

                              affordable for common people to own and

                              read it.

 

 

The Peasants’ Revolt

        - Inspired by Reformation by applying Luther’s revolutionary ideas

          to society, German peasants seek end to serfdom (1524)

        - Peasant demands: demanded an end to serfdom

        - Bands of angry peasants went about the countryside raiding

          monasteries, pillaging, and burning everything in sight.

        - The revolt horrified Luther. He wrote a pamphlet urging the

          German princes to show the peasants no mercy.

        - Princes crush revolt; about 100,000 people die

 

Germany at War

        - Some princes side with Luther, become known as Protestants

        - Charles V fails to return rebellious princes to Catholic Church

        - Peace of Augsburg (1555): an agreement declaring that the

                                        religion of each German state would be

                                        decided by its ruler.

 

England Becomes Protestant

 

English Reformation: More about freedom to decide one’s fate than about religion.

       

        - when: 1500’s

 

Henry VIII Wants a Son

        - Henry has only daughter, needs male heir to rule England

        - Henry wants a divorce; Pope refuses to annul: set aside

          his first marriage to Catherine of Aragon

 

Henry VIII: English king who got into a serious quarrel with the pope over succession to the throne.  He broke ties with the Catholic Church and established his own state religion.

 

        - major issue with wives: Henry needed a male heir to the

                                              throne… and wasn’t getting one.

 

        - Catherine of Aragon: first wife of Henry VIII.  He was

                     forced to marry her after the death of his brother,

                     Arthur (she was Arthur’s widow). Together Henry

                     and Catherine six children, with only Mary I

                     surviving.

 

Henry still has the problem of needing a male heir to secure the throne for the Tudor family and prevent another civil war.   

 

        - Anne Boleyn: second wife of Henry VIII whose marriage

                    sparked a huge fight between Henry and the

                    Church; mother of Elizabeth I; was beheaded for

                     treason.

                * 1527: The solution: Henry needs a divorce.  The

                           problem: the Catholic Church does not allow

                           divorce.  Henry asks the pope, who promptly

                           tells him, “No way” - due not to the Catholic

                           teachings, but to politics.

 

                * Charles V: nephew to Catherine of Aragon.  The pope

                       depends on good old Chucky for military    

                       protection. If the pope gives Henry a divorce,

                       Charles V will no longer protect the papal states. 

 

                        ^ effect: If the pope gives Henry a divorce,

                                    Charles V will no longer protect the

                                    papal states. 

 

        - problems with the Catholic Church: Henry marries Anne in

                          spite of the friction it causes with the Church.

 

The Reformation Parliament

        - Parliament passes laws ending pope’s power in England

        - Henry remarries, becomes official head of England’s

          Church

        - Thomas More refuses to go against Catholic Church and is

          beheaded

 

        - with the backing of Parliament:  With Parliament’s   

                    support, Henry decides to break away from the

                    Catholic Church and form his own religion.

 

        - what he was trying to show: He claimed his action was

                   the will of the English people--- even if it wasn’t.

 

        - 1534: Act of Supremacy - law of Parliament that legally

                   separated the Church of England from the Catholic

                   Church, and made the king (in this case, Henry) the

                   head of the English Church.

 

**** Now Henry can give himself a divorce and it’s legal!

 

        - daughter with Anne: Elizabeth I

 

Still no son.  Time to get rid of Anne and find a new wife.  Henry couldn’t just divorce her because he would look bad to the people.  So, he trumps up a charge of treason against her.  She was NOT guilty of treason.

 

        - execution of Anne Boleyn: beheaded

 

                * reason: for treason

 

        - Jane Seymour: Henry VIII’s third wife; mother of Edward.

 

                * Edward VI: only male heir of Henry VIII; ruled with a

                                  council of lords beginning at age 9.  He

                                  really didn’t do much of anything. 

                                  England continued to be Protestant.

 

                        ^ effect of his death:  Back to the problem of

                                      who should rule.  The Lords decided to

                                      allow Mary to rule…hopefully able to

                                      control her like they did Edward.

                                      Didn’t work.  Mary decides to rule for

                                      herself… sort of.

 

Consequences of Henry’s Changes

        - Henry has six wives and three children

        - Religious turmoil follows Henry’s death (1547)

        - Protestantism under King Edward, then Catholicism

          under Queen Mary

        - Mary I: daughter of Henry VIII; married to Philip II of Spain

                     – another Catholic country.  England needed

                        strength.

 

                * Mary and Philip have no children.  She develops a

                   brain tumor and it affects her thinking.  Made her

                   really paranoid too.

 

                * her reign: 1553-58; really bad

 

                * changes she made: tried to restore Catholicism as

                      the official religion of England; executed

                      hundreds of Protestants by having them burned at

                      the stake.

 

                * “Bloody Mary”: nickname she earned, but it

                          strengthened the popular support for

                          Protestantism.

 

        - 1558: Mary I dies.  Elizabeth takes over… and she will rule

                   for herself.

 

Elizabeth Restores Protestantism

        - Henry’s second daughter, Queen Elizabeth I, forms

          Anglican Church

        - Anglican Church is acceptable to moderate Catholics and

          Protestants

 

Elizabeth I: English queen who, in order to unite her people,

                  made the English Church Protestant with Catholic 

                  features.

 

        - changes she made: made the English Church Protestant

                                       with Catholic features – now called

                                       Anglicanism.

                * Anglicanism: a blend of Protestant belief with

                                     Catholic practices:  Also known as the

                                     Church of England.

 

                        ^ Puritans: Protestants who insisted on removing

                               ALL Catholic features from the Church of

                               England- wanted to “purify” it.  Most

                               people didn’t want that.  These extremists

                               finally fled England and went to America. 

                               (We call them “Pilgrims”)

 

Elizabeth Faces Other Challenges

        - Some Protestants and Catholics oppose Elizabeth

        - Phillip II, Catholic King of Spain, threatens England with

          the Spanish Armada.

        - Elizabeth’s need for money brings conflict with

          Parliament

 

 

Section 4:  The Reformation Continues

 

As Protestant reformers divide over beliefs, the Catholic Church makes reforms.

 

2 reasons for division in the Protestant Reformation:

1.) Reformers did not believe in the same methods

2.) Reformers did not even agree on the same goals.

 

Religious Reform in Switzerland

        - Swiss priest Huldrych Zwingli calls for Church reforms

          (1520)

        - War breaks out between Catholics, Protestants; Zwingli

          killed (1531)

 

Huldrych Zwingli: leader of the Protestant movement in Switzerland who wanted to completely break from the Catholic Church and create a theocracy in Zurich.

 

        - dates: 1484-1531

 

        - where: Zurich, Switzerland

 

        - 2 beliefs:

                1.) Stressed salvation by faith alone.

                2.) Denounced many Catholic beliefs and practices

                    such as purgatory, and the sale of indulgences.

 

        - how he differed from Martin Luther: Zwingli differed from

                   Martin Luther because he wanted to break

                   completely away from the Catholic Church.

 

        - Zwinglism: Huldrych Zwingli’s ideas and practices of

                            Protestantism.

 

        - theocracy: a church-run state.

 

        - by 1525: Zwingli had achieved his goal in Zurich.

 

        - 1531: Religious war broke out over Protestant missionary

                  activities in Catholic areas of Switzerland. Zwingli

                  and his followers (about 1,500) were defeated by an

                  army of 8,000 Catholics.

 

Calvin Formalizes Protestant Ideas and Leads the Reformation in Switzerland

  - John Calvin writes Institutes of the Christian Religion

     (1536): "We are sinful by nature and cannot earn salvation.  God

                  chooses who will be saved— predestination."

  - Calvinism—religion based on Calvin’s teachings

  - Calvin says ideal government is theocracy—rule by religious leaders

  - Geneva becomes a strict Protestant theocracy led by Calvin

 

John Calvin: Swiss religious leader who proclaimed the doctrine of predestination.

 

       - where: Geneva, Switzerland

 

       - 3 areas of education: theology, law, and humanism

 

              * effect on him: prompted him study the Bible very

                                      carefully and eventually formulate his

                                      own Protestant theology.

 

       - The Institutes of the Christian Religion: Book of John

                    Calvin’s protestant religion.  Became one of the

                     most popular books of the day.  Influenced

                     reformers in Europe and North America.

 

              * date: published in 1536

 

       - 3 points of his theology:

              1.) God possessed all encompassing power and

                    knowledge.

              2.) God alone directed everything that has happened in

                   The past, is happening in the present, and will

                    happen in the future.

              3.) predestination: the belief that God predetermines

                   each person’s fate.

 

       - his ideal for Geneva: Calvin wanted to turn it into a model

                                        religious community.

 

 

       - the Consistory: a Church council of 12 elders, created by

                               John Calvin, that was given the power to

                               control almost every aspect of people’s daily

                               lives. 

 

              * 5 actions of the Consistory:

                     1.) All citizens were required to attend Reformed

                           church services several times each week.

                     2.) Inspected homes annually to make sure that

                          no one was disobeying any church law.

                     3.) Forbade fighting, swearing, drunkenness,

                           gambling,  card playing, and dancing.

                     4.) Dispensed harsh punishments to anyone who

                          disobeyed the laws.

                     5.) People convicted of holding Catholic beliefs or

                          of practicing witchcraft could be executed.

 

       - “nickname” for Geneva: “City of God” Many people came to

                                  Geneva to live in this strict environment.

 

       - 2 reasons Calvinism spread:

              1.) It was led by local councils of ministers and elected

                   church members, so it was easy to establish in most

                   areas.

              2.) It’s somewhat democratic nature gave its

                   participants some stake in its welfare and inspired

                   intense loyalty.

 

Calvinism Spreads

        - John Knox brings Calvinism to Scotland, followers are

          Presbyterians

        - Church governed by laymen called presbyters, or elders

        - Calvin’s followers in France called Huguenots

        - Catholics massacre Huguenots(French protestants)  in Paris (1572)

John Knox: leader of the Reformation in Scotland.

 

       - how he used Calvinism:  As an extension of Calvinism’s

            democratic ideals, he encouraged people to

            overthrow tyrannical rulers if they were not moral

            and/or abused their authority.

 

Calvinism: the protestant religion started by John Calvin

 

       - modern name: Presbyterianism

 

       - as a dynamic social force:  Because of it’s emphasis on

                democracy, Calvinism became a dynamic social force

                in western Europe in the 1500’s and contributed to the

                rise of the revolutionary movements later in the 1600’s

                and 1700’s.

 

Other Protestant Reformers

 

The Anabaptists

        - Anabaptists believe in separation of church and state,

          oppose wars

        - Forerunners of the Mennonites and Amish

 

Anabaptists: new Protestant groups in western Europe who initiated the practice of admitting only adult members.

 

       - 4 beliefs/actions:

              1.) Believed that only people who could make a free

                    and informed choice to become Christians should

                    be allowed to do so.

 

             NOTE: Catholic and established Protestant

              churches baptized infants – parents made the

              choice for them.

2.) They denied the authority of local governments to

      direct their lives.

3.) They refused to hold public office, bear arms, or

      swear oaths.

4.) Many (the more fanatical in the group) chose to live

     apart from what they saw as a sinful society.

 

       - zealot: a religious fanatic—always taking things to the

                    extreme

 

       - 1534:  A radical group of Anabaptists seized power in

                   Munster, Germany and proceeded to burn books,

                   seize private property, and practice polygamy. (the

                   practice of having more than one spouse)

 

              * result: The German Catholics and Lutherans united to

                           crush them.  They killed the Anabaptist leaders

                           and persecuted any surviving Anabaptist

                           believers.  This caused many Anabaptist

                           member to flee Europe and come to America.

 

       - 2 American ideals promoted by:

              1.) religious liberty

              2.) separation of church and state

 

Woman’s Role in the Reformation

 

        - Marguerite of Navarre (sister of King Francis I) protected John

                        Calvin from being executed for his beliefs while he lived

                         in France.

 

        - Katrina Zell:  once scolded a minister for speaking harshly of

            another reformer. The minister responded by saying

            that she had “disturbed the peace.” She answered

            his criticism sharply:

 

                "Do you call this disturbing the peace that instead of spending my

                time in frivolous amusements I have visited the plague-infested

                and carried out the dead? I have visited those in prison and under

                sentence of death. Often for three days and three nights I have

                neither eaten nor slept. I have never mounted the pulpit, but I

                have done more than any minister in visiting those in misery."

 

        - Katherina von Bora:  Wife of Martin Luther who managed the

                family finances, fed all who visited their house, and supported

               her husband’s work. She respected Luther’s position but

               argued with him about woman’s equal role in marriage.

 

As Protestant religions became more firmly established, their organization became more formal. Male religious leaders narrowly limited women’s activities to the home and discouraged them from being leaders in the church. In fact, it was Luther who said,

“God’s highest gift on earth is a pious, cheerful, God-fearing, home-keeping wife.”

 

The Catholic Reformation

 

7 areas remaining Catholic during the Protestant Reformation:

       Spain            

       France           

       Italy

       Portugal

       Hungary

       Poland

       Southern Germany

 

 

 

A Counter Reformation

        - Catholic Reformation—seeks to reform Catholic Church

           from within

 

Catholic (Counter) Reformation: movement of the Middle Ages to

                                              reform the Catholic Church.

 

       - 3 major actions:

              1.) Eliminated many abuses

              2.) Clarified its theology

              3.) Reestablished the pope’s authority over church

                    members.

 

Ignatius of Loyola

        - Leading Catholic reformer

        - His Spiritual Exercises (1522) calls for meditation, prayer,

          and study

        - Pope creates Society of Jesus religious order, the Jesuits

        - Jesuits follow Ignatius, start schools, convert non

          Christians

 

Ignatius Loyola: Spanish noble who gave up his easy life to serve 

                       God.  He is the founder of the Society of Jesus –

                       the Jesuits – in 1521.

 

       - “spiritual exercises”: Mediations to calm oneself and

                                       achieve an inner peace.

 

       - need to improve the education of his order: he felt they

                        needed to improve their level of education so

                        they could preach more effectively.

 

       - 1536: His group went to Rome determined to win souls,

                  not by the sword (or by for of force for that matter),

                  but through education.

 

       - 1540: Loyola founds a new religious order

             

- Society of Jesus (Jesuits): followers of Ignatius of

                                        Loyola

 

              * 9 actions/characteristics:

                     1.) pledged absolute obedience to the pope

                     2.) wore the black robes of monks

3.) Lived simple lives, but did not withdraw from

     the world like other monks.

4.) preached to the people

                     5.) helped the poor

                     6.) set up schools

                     7.) taught in universities

                     8.) worked as missionaries

                     9.) served as advisers to royal courts

 

              * effects of missionary efforts:  Helped the Church

                             retain the loyalty of people in southern

                             Germany, Bohemia, Poland and Hungary.

 

              * Jesuit universities: were prominent centers of

                             education for the next 200 years.  They are

                             still considered to be some the best in the

                             world. (EX: St. Louis University, Loyola

                             University, Marquette University)

 

              * 10 subjects taught there: (besides Catholic theology)

                            1.) philosophy

                           2.) physics

                           3.) astronomy

                           4.) mathematics

                           5.) archaeology

                           6.) linguistics

                           7.) biology

                           8.) chemistry

                           9.) genetics

 

                     * educational reputation: considered to be the

                                   best.  Very challenging curriculum.

 

Reforming Popes

        - Pope Paul III and Pope Paul IV lead reforms

        - Paul III calls Council of Trent to lay out reforms:

                * Church’s interpretation of Bible is final

                * Christians need faith and good works for salvation

                * Bible and Church traditions equally important

                * Indulgences are valid expressions of faith

        - Use Inquisition to seek out heresy

        - Paul IV issues Index of Forbidden Books (1559); books are burned

 

Paul III: Pope who, in 1536, created a council of cardinals and bishops to prepare a report on the need for reform.

 

 

        - 5 goals of reform movement:

                1.) Eliminate abuses.

                2.) Introduce a rebirth of faith among its followers.

                3.) Reassess the Church’s principles

                4.) Restore the authority of the pope.

                5.) Halt the spread of Protestantism.

 

Inquisition: a Church court based in Italy, created to find, try and judge heretics – especially Protestants

 

        - 1542: Inquisition began.

 

        - purposes: to find, try and judge heretics – especially

                         Protestants, and try to restore the authority of

                         the pope.

 

        - censorship: to restrict what people can/cannot read in an

                            attempt to control them.

 

        - 1543: Church introduced censorship, in the form of the

                   Index, to curtail the humanist thinking that had

                   fueled the Italian Renaissance.

 

                * Index of Prohibited Books: First published in 1948,

                           this list contained any books deemed

                           unsuitable for Catholics to own or read. 

                           The Index of Forbidden Books was last

                            published in 1966.

 

                ^ penalty for reading/owning: excommunication

 

Council of Trent: Church meeting (1545-1563) designed to state and defend Catholic teachings, and try to put an end to many abuses in the Catholic Church.

       

        - 8 actions:

                1.) Strictly and clearly defined Catholic doctrine.

                2.) Declared that salvation cannot be attained by faith

                     alone, but only by faith and works together.

                3.) The Latin Vulgate translation was made the only

                     acceptable version of scripture.

                4.) Church hierarchy was the only authority for all

                     biblical interpretation.

                5.) Forbade the selling of indulgences.

                6.) Clergy was ordered to follow strict rules of

                     behavior.

                7.) Each diocese had to establish a seminary for the

                     proper education of priests.  All priests must go to

                     a seminary prior to ordination.

                        ^ seminary: schools for the education of priests.

                8.) Mass should be only said in Latin.

 

2 phases for ending Protestantism:

        1.) Reform the Catholic Church

        2.) Launch a missionary offensive against the Protestants to

             reclaim formerly Catholic lands which were now

             Protestant.

 

The Legacy of the Reformation

 

2 reasons for the success of the Catholic Reformation:

        1.) Increased religious devotion

        2.) Helped correct many church abuses

 

failure of Catholic Reformation:  It did not succeed in

                                                  eliminating Protestantism.

 

European areas which remained Protestant

        - Lutheran: Northern Germany and Scandinavia

        - Calvinist: Southern Germany, Switzerland, the

          Netherlands, and Scotland.

        - Anglican: England

 

Reasons why the Europeans supported the Protestant Reformation:

 

1.) Religious conviction

 

2.) German princes often accepted Protestant teachings in order to

      increase their own power. They made Lutheranism and Calvinism

      the state religion, placing it under their protection and control.

      (Allowed them to steal back Church lands.)

 

4.) Townspeople rallied to the new faith which supported their business

      practices.

 

5.) Many peasants sided with Protestantism as a form of protest against

     the Catholic nobility.

6.) Northern Europeans saw Protestantism as a way to defy an

     Italian-controlled Catholic Church that drained so much money from

     their homelands. (the major reason)

 

Religious, Social and Political Effects of the Reformation

 

        - Catholic Church is unified; Protestant denominations grow

        - Catholics and Protestants create schools throughout

          Europe

        - Status of women does not improve

        - Catholic Church’s power lessens, power of monarchs and

          states grow

        - Reformation’s questioning of beliefs brings intellectual

          fermentation

        - Late 18th century sees a new intellectual movement—the

          Enlightenment

 

11 Major Effects of the Protestant Reformation Handout

 

1.) Weakened the political power of the Roman Catholic Church.

2.) Helped new nations become more independent.

3.) Increased the power of the kings.

4.) Helped the spread of democracy and representative governments.

5.) Increased the role of the people in church government.

6.) Strengthened the role of the middle class.

7.) Encouraged education.

8.) Strengthened and improved religious practices.

9.) Reawakened an interest in religion.

10.) Prevented further abuses in the Catholic Church.

11.) Promoted religious toleration.