Enlightened Despots and Other Topics

The Enlightened Absolutists

Frederick II The Great of Prussia
Scientific Revolution
Madame de Pampadour
Maria Theresa of Austria
Age of Enlightenment
Marie de Vichy-Chamrond
Julie de Lespinasse
Joseph II of Austria
Catherine II the Great of Russia
Marie-therese rodet geoffrin

Frederick II The Great of Prussia:

 Fredericus Rex: Prussia's King Frederick the Great

 Frederick The Great :  A bio on Frederick the Great... from a site on "Freds".

 Frederick The Great's Campaigns and Battles

 Die Deutschekulturseite - Frederick the Great and
 Frederick the Great's Military Instruction to Generals and  Frederick the Great - 1752 Political Testament : Primary source.

 Frederick II (The Great): 1740-1786

 Voltaire with Frederick the Great of Prussia

 Frederick II of Prussia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Frederick the Great

 Munger.ca: Frederick the Great Biography

 Frederick the Great Quotes and  Frederick The Great quotes - ThinkExist quotations

 MSN Encarta - Frederick II (of Prussia)

 Carlyle's "History of Friedrich II of Prussia, Called Frederick the Great" :  Extensive biography from one of the best historians in history.

 Modern History Sourcebook: The Decline of the Holy Roman Empire ...

 Reader's Companion to Military History - - Frederick II (the Great)

Modern History Sourcebook: Frederick II: Essay on Government : Primary source

 Frederick II, king of Prussia. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth ...

 Frederick the Great -- from Eric Weisstein's World of Scientific ...

Frederick the Great and His Family by L. Mühlbach - Project ... and Frederick the Great and His Court by L. Mühlbach - Project ...

 Letters from Voltaire : Primary sources.

Maria Theresa of Austria:

 Maria Theresa

 Maria Theresa - Encyclopaedia Britannica  : Provides a lengthy chronicle of the life and reign of the Austrian archduchess who ruled over Hungary and Bohemia.  ONE OF THE BEST SITES ON THE WEB.

 Maria Theresa - Catholic Encyclopedia

Maria Theresa - Hungary's Only Reigning Queen

 Daring Raid on Berlin : Read about the Habsburg dynasty's rule over eighteenth century Hungary and foreign policy and the direction of the army under Maria Theresa.

 Maria Theresa's Reforms - Radio Prague : Article from a series on this history of the Czech republic focuses on the Habsburg  Empress' efforts to protect her Empire from foreign invasion.

 Maria Theresa - Catholic Encyclopedia

 Maria Theresa. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001

 Maria Theresa, (1717-1780)

 Maria Theresa, Archduchess of Austria

 Maria Theresa

Modern History Sourcebook: Luise Gottsched: Description of the Empress Maria Theresa, 1749 :  Primary source

 Maria Theresa

 Austria the the Reforms of Maria Theresa and Joseph II


Joseph II of Austria:

Joseph II. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001


Joseph II

Joseph II on Encyclopedia.com

 Joseph II

 JOSEPH II. - LoveToKnow Article

Austria the the Reforms of Maria Theresa and Joseph II

Joseph Ii - ENCYCLOPEDIA - The History Channel UK

Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Reign Of Joseph Ii - Romania

WORLD ENCYCLOPAEDIA - Romania - The Reign of Joseph II

The Enlightened Despots

Encyclopedia: Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor

Catherine II the Great of Russia:

 Catherine The Great

 Catherine the Great : Incredible Site!!!

 Catherine II - The Enlightened Despot :  University lecture highlights the negative  impact of the great ruler's reign on the common Russian people.  Requires RealPlayer.

 Ekaterina2   :  Read about the ascension of this German
  princess to the throne of Imperial Russia and her legacy as a ruler.

 The Alexander Palace Time Machine Bios - Catherine the Great :  Excellent site.

 History & Culture of Russia / The Romanovs :  Scroll about halfway down for Catherine.

 Worldroots.com - Catherine II "the Great"   : Personal anecdotes of the Imperial ruler's  character and leadership highlight this biography.

 Catherine II of Russia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Catherine the Great. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. ...

 Catherine the Great: 1762-1796

 Catherine the Great

 Mosaic Unit 11: Voltaire and Catherine the Great

 Section 5:  Catherine the Great: An Enlightened Despot? /Shaping of the Modern World/Brooklyn College : Primary source.

 Modern History Sourcebook: Catherine the Great :  PRIMARY SOURCES WRITTEN BY CATHERINE II

Scientific Revolution:

Lecture 7: The Scientific Revolution, 1642-1750 (2)

 HWC, Scientific Revolution  : By Dr. Skip Knox.... look here first.

Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Scientific Revolution

 Scientific Revolution Home Page: Lots of links and information.

The Scientific Revolution

 Glossary Definition: Scientific Revolution

 The Scientific Revolution

 Scientific Revolution

 Catalog of the Scientific Community in the 16th and 17th Centuries : A searchable database detailing the significant contributions of  over 600 individuals to western science.

 The Scientific Revolution :  Good information.


 Social Relations of Science, Renaissance Through Eighteenth Century

 Cultural Relations of Science to Eighteenth Century

 The Scientific Revolution, 1543 - 1687 (1) and  The Scientific Revolution, 1642-1750 (2)

Age of Enlightenment:

 NM's Creative Impulse.. Enlightenment

 The Enlightenment and the Eighteenth Century

 The European Enlightenment

 The European Enlightenment: Contents

 Enlightenment - Historical background

 The Age of the Enlightenment

 Lecture 8: The New Intellectual Order: Man, Nature and Society

 People - Age of Enlightenment

 The Age of the Enlightenment


Alchemists (ca. 400-1400) -- from Eric Weisstein's World of Scientific Biography :  Really basic.

Alchemy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Alchemy - Philosopher's Stone

Alchemy - Philosopher's Stone

Alchemy Rediscovered and Restored: Part I: Historical: Chapter II. Early European Alchemists

Alchemy Articles

 Paracelsus - The Treasure of Treasures for Alchemists

 No. 76: About Alchemists

Explore Ancients and Alchemists - Chemical Heritage Foundation


A Brief History of Alchemy




Theophrastus Paracelsus: The Treasure of Treasures for Alchemists


Modern History Sourcebook- Salon Life

 :  Primary source.


Salon du Muse

Enlightenment Salons The Convergence of Female & Philosophic Ambitions

WHKMLA Enlightenment Salon Culture

Salon (gathering) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Women and The Enlightenment French Ladies Shape Society

European salon culture

The Women of the French Salons by Amelia Ruth Gere Mason - Project Gutenberg

The Women of the French Salons - Chapter IX

Salon (gathering) - Art History Online Reference and Guide

The Fantasy Life of Salons

Madame de Pompadour:

 The Women of the French Salons

 Madame de Pompadour

 Madame de Pompadour

 Madame de Pompadour :  Brief information, but good portraits.

The Fabrication of Madame de Pompadour

Pompadour, Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson, marquise de --  Encyclopædia Britannica :  Excellent bio... but you have to sign up for a free trial of the service.

 Pompadour, Jeanne Antoinette Poisson

 Madame de Pompadour

 Mme de Pompadou by Amanda Foreman

 WHKMLA : Enlightenment : Salon Culture

 Madame de Pompadour

 MSN Encarta - Madame de Pompadour

 BBC - Radio 4 - Woman's Hour -Madame de Pompadour

 Madame de Pompadour Information - Search Spaniel

 Illustrious People - Madame de Pompadour

Marie-Therese Rodet Geoffrin:


Modern History Sourcebook: Salon Life

Geoffrin, Marie-Therese Rodet -- Encyclopædia Britannica



Madame Geoffrin

The Nation, 02/03/1876 - Madame Geoffrin

Marie de Vichy-Chamrond:

 The Women of the French Salons

 Du Deffand, Marie de Vichy-Chamrond, marquise on Encyclopedia.com

 Du Deffand, Marie de Vichy-Chamrond, marquise. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001

 Marquise du Deffand - French salon society

Julie de Lespinasse:

The Women of the French Salons and  Chapter XV

Jeanne Julie Eleonore de Lespinasse - Art History Online Reference and Guide

 Modern History Sourcebook: Salon Life

 Lespinasse, Julie de --  Encyclopædia Britannica

 Translated version of http://www.aei.ca/~anbou/lespinasse.html


WebMuseum: Romanticism


Romanticism by Roger Jones

Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Romanticism

Romanticism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Rise of Romanticism

Romanticism: the Artistic Expression of Liberalism.

NASSR Homepage--Frames :  The North American Society for the Study of Romanticism

Romanticism. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001

Mark Harden's Artchive: "Romanticism"


Romanticism :  Claims to be the best Romanticism site that exists on the internet.

 IHAS: Artist/Movement/Ideas : A PBS site.


 Classicism : Good definition.

Classicism. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001

WebMuseum: Classicism

Classicism and Neoclassicism -- Encyclopædia Britannica

Classical Net - Definition - Classicism

Classicism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Classicism Art - Artists, Artworks and Biographies

Classicism -> The Renaissance and Thereafter on Encyclopedia.com 2002

Classicism [19th Century] - Featured Artistic Style on Artfact.com